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This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2010) Nielsen Media Research (NMR) is an American firm that measures media audiences, including television, radio, theatre films (via the AMC Theatres MAP program) and newspapers. NMR, headquartered in New York City and operating primarily from Chicago, is best known for the Nielsen ratings, an audience measurement system of television viewership that for years has been the deciding factor in canceling or renewing television shows by television networks. Contents 1 History 2 Initial Public Offer 3 See also 4 References 5 External links History Nielsen Media Research, the preeminent media research company in the world, began as a division of ACNielsen, a marketing research firm. In 1996, Nielsen Media Research was split off into an independent company and in 1999, was purchased by the Dutch conglomerate VNU. In 2001, VNU also purchased ACNielsen, thereby bringing both companies under the same corporate umbrella. VNU was reorganized and renamed the Nielsen Company in 2007. The Nielsen TV Ratings have been produced since the 1950s and statistically measure which programs are watched by different segments of the population. The most well known portion is the "diary". During the 4 sweeps months of February, May, July and November, Nielsen interviewers in Dunedin, Florida and Radcliff, Kentucky ask homes to participate in filling out a diary of the programs watched in their home for a one week period. By 1983, Nielsen was dissatisfied with the diary method as national measurement tool. Stations complaining that the system was inaccurate lead to the cable study known as CAMS (Cable Audience Methodological Study), which proved claims to be true. Though they hadn’t agreed on a replacement, they were convinced that it was no longer adequate to measure new television environments due to dramatic media changes. Finally in 1986, Nielson developed an electronic meter, People Meter, to solve the problem. They were convinced their new method was efficient but still weren’t sure whether they would fully depend on the people meter measurement alone or use the people meter sample in a fashion similar to their previous diary method as an addition to the household meter sample to produce viewers per household. Ultimately, CONTAM validation studies helped Nielsen decided they would fully incorporate the full people meter service and leave the diary behind. The Nielsen sample included roughly 1,700 audimeter homes and rotating board of nearly 850 diary respondents, by the early 1980s. Nielsen launched its Nielsen Homevideo Index (NHI) in 1980 to measure cable, pay cable, and VCRs, and the NHI began offering daily cable ratings in 1982. Nielsen’s continued to advance with steady changes into the mid 2000s. Along with changing their counting methods, Nielsen also started emphasizing their sample in 2003 in reaction to census shifts and requests from some industry sectors. Nielsen’s automated Local People Meter (LPM) technology was introduced in New York and Los Angeles. The LPM improved the method of measurement from active and diary-based to passive and meter-monitored. More importantly, the LPM provides accurate measurements to particular local markets, verse a nation wide sample from the People meter. While diary-based surveys concentrated on quarterly “sweeps” periods, the industry has been pushed towards year-round measurement, due to the automated LPM system. Recently, Nielsen announced the launch of its A2M2 project that would measure television viewing in and out of the home. Nielsen Media Research is a sister company to Nielsen//NetRatings, which measures Internet and digital media audiences through a telephone and internet survey, and Nielsen BuzzMetrics, which measures Consumer-Generated Media. Nielsen also conducts market research for the film industry through National Research Group (NRG). Initial Public Offer Nielsen went in for an IPO (NYSE: NLSN) in January 2011 and was the largest public offers in the United States in the last 4 years. Being the largest IPO for a firm backed by private equity at, $ 1.64 billion, the IPO was well received and closely watched by all big banks and private equity boutiques[1] On March 1, 2011 they announced the appointment of Liz Zale as Vice President - Investor Relations. Liz Zale was previously Vice President Investor Relations at Moody's Corporation (NYSE: MCO).[2] See also Automated Measurement of Lineups (AMOL) Media Market or Designated Market Area (DMA) References ^ Cowan, Lynn (26 January 2011). "Nielsen, Demand Media Jump on Debut". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703293204576105881414446162.html. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Bouryal, Kristie. "The Nielsen Company Appoints Liz Zale Senior Vice President for Investor Relations". Neilsen Press Room. The Nielsen Company. http://nielsen.com/us/en/insights/press-room/2011/the_nielsen_companyappointslizzaleseniorvicepresidentforinvestor.html. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  3. ^ Lotz, Amanda D. "The Television Will be Revolutionized." New York University Press. Retrieved April 13, 2011. 4. ^ Stoddard Jr., Laurence R. “The History of People Meters: How We Got There (And Why).” United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press. External links Nielsen Media Research The Nielsen Company Designated Market Area VNU Group bv v · d · eNielsen Company Units Nielsen Consumer · Nielsen Media Research · Nielsen Online · Nielsen Moblie · Nielsen Business Media Services Nielsen BookScan · Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems · Nielsen SoundScan · Nielsen VideoScan Magazines Contract · DDI · Photo District News · Impressions · National Jeweler