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(February 2009) edit Histidine-rich glycoprotein Identifiers Symbols HRG; DKFZp779H1622; HPRG; HRGP External IDs OMIM: 142640 MGI: 2146636 HomoloGene: 30973 GeneCards: HRG Gene Gene Ontology Molecular function • cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity • heparin binding Cellular component • extracellular region • extracellular region • plasma membrane • platelet alpha granule lumen Biological process • platelet degranulation • blood coagulation • platelet activation • fibrinolysis Sources: Amigo / QuickGO RNA expression pattern More reference expression data Orthologs Species Human Mouse Entrez 3273 94175 Ensembl ENSG00000113905 ENSMUSG00000022877 UniProt P04196 n/a RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000412 NM_053176.2 RefSeq (protein) NP_000403 NP_444406.2 Location (UCSC) Chr 3: 186.38 – 186.4 Mb Chr 16: 22.95 – 22.96 Mb PubMed search [1] [2] Histidine-rich glycoprotein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HRG gene.[1][2] This histidine-rich glycoprotein contains two cystatin-like domains and is located in plasma and platelets. The physiological function has not been determined but it is known that the protein binds heme, dyes and divalent metal ions. It can inhibit rosette formation and interacts with heparin, thrombospondin and plasminogen. Two of the protein's effects, the inhibition of fibrinolysis and the reduction of inhibition of coagulation, indicate a potential prothrombotic effect. Mutations in this gene lead to thrombophilia due to abnormal histidine-rich glycoprotein levels.[2] References ^ Hennis BC, Kluft C (Sep 1991). "KpnI RFLP in the human histidine-rich glycoprotein gene". Nucleic Acids Res 19 (15): 4311–4311. doi:10.1093/nar/19.15.4311-a. PMC 328603. PMID 1678514.  ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HRG histidine-rich glycoprotein". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=3273.  Further reading Hughes GJ, Frutiger S, Paquet N et al. (1993). "Plasma protein map: an update by microsequencing". Electrophoresis 13 (9–10): 707–14. doi:10.1002/elps.11501301150. PMID 1459097.  Hutchens TW, Yip TT, Morgan WT (1992). "Identification of histidine-rich glycoprotein in human colostrum and milk". Pediatr. Res. 31 (3): 239–46. PMID 1561009.  van den Berg EA (1990). "Assignment of the human gene for histidine-rich glycoprotein to chromosome 3". Genomics 7 (2): 276–9. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(90)90551-5. PMID 2347592.  Shatsky M, Saigo K, Burdach S et al. (1989). "Histidine-rich glycoprotein blocks T cell rosette formation and modulates both T cell activation and immunoregulation". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (14): 8254–9. PMID 2524479.  Saigo K, Shatsky M, Levitt LJ, Leung LK (1989). "Interaction of histidine-rich glycoprotein with human T lymphocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (14): 8249–53. PMID 2566603.  Koide T, Foster D, Yoshitake S, Davie EW (1986). "Amino acid sequence of human histidine-rich glycoprotein derived from the nucleotide sequence of its cDNA". Biochemistry 25 (8): 2220–5. doi:10.1021/bi00356a055. PMID 3011081.  Hajjar DP, Boyd DB, Harpel PC, Nachman RL (1987). "Histidine-rich glycoprotein inhibits the antiproliferative effect of heparin on smooth muscle cells". J. Exp. Med. 165 (3): 908–13. doi:10.1084/jem.165.3.908. PMC 2188292. PMID 3819648.  Leung LL (1986). "Interaction of histidine-rich glycoprotein with fibrinogen and fibrin". J. Clin. Invest. 77 (4): 1305–11. doi:10.1172/JCI112435. PMC 424483. PMID 3958188.  Heimburger N, Haupt H, Kranz T, Baudner S (1972). "[Human serum proteins with high affinity to carboxymethylcellulose. II. Physico-chemical and immunological characterization of a histidine-rich 3,8S- 2 -glycoportein (CM-protein I)]". Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 353 (7): 1133–40. PMID 4116337.  Silverstein RL, Leung LL, Harpel PC, Nachman RL (1984). "Complex formation of platelet thrombospondin with plasminogen. Modulation of activation by tissue activator". J. Clin. Invest. 74 (5): 1625–33. doi:10.1172/JCI111578. PMC 425339. PMID 6438154.  Hennis BC, Frants RR, Bakker E et al. (1994). "Evidence for the absence of intron H of the histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) gene: genetic mapping and in situ localization of HRG to chromosome 3q28-q29". Genomics 19 (1): 195–7. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1046. PMID 8188234.  Sørensen CB, Krogh-Pedersen H, Petersen TE (1993). "Determination of the disulphide bridge arrangement of bovine histidine-rich glycoprotein". FEBS Lett. 328 (3): 285–90. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(93)80945-Q. PMID 8348977.  Leung L (1993). "Histidine-rich glycoprotein: an abundant plasma protein in search of a function". J. Lab. Clin. Med. 121 (5): 630–1. PMID 8478589.  Angles-Cano E, Gris JC, Loyau S, Schved JF (1993). "Familial association of high levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with venous thromboembolism". J. Lab. Clin. Med. 121 (5): 646–53. PMID 8478593.  Gorgani NN, Parish CR, Easterbrook Smith SB, Altin JG (1997). "Histidine-rich glycoprotein binds to human IgG and C1q and inhibits the formation of insoluble immune complexes". Biochemistry 36 (22): 6653–62. doi:10.1021/bi962573n. PMID 9184145.  Schinke T, Koide T, Jahnen-Dechent W (1997). "Human histidine-rich glycoprotein expressed in SF9 insect cells inhibits apatite formation". FEBS Lett. 412 (3): 559–62. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00827-2. PMID 9276466.  Shigekiyo T, Yoshida H, Matsumoto K et al. (1998). "HRG Tokushima: molecular and cellular characterization of histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) deficiency". Blood 91 (1): 128–33. PMID 9414276.  Wakabayashi S, Takahashi K, Koide T (1999). "Structural characterization of the gene for human histidine-rich glycoprotein, reinvestigation of the 5'-terminal region of cDNA and a search for the liver specific promoter in the gene". J. Biochem. 125 (3): 522–30. PMID 10050040.  Gorgani NN, Altin JG, Parish CR (1999). "Histidine-rich glycoprotein regulates the binding of monomeric IgG and immune complexes to monocytes". Int. Immunol. 11 (8): 1275–82. doi:10.1093/intimm/11.8.1275. PMID 10421785.  This article on a gene on chromosome 3 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e