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This article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points. (July 2010) Although primary production is the main industry in Australia, manufacturing in Australia is still a significant industry. Contents 1 History 2 Food processing 3 Textile industry 4 Motor vehicles 5 Chemical industry 6 Currently Australian-made products 7 Australian/NZ icons no longer made in Australia/NZ 8 See also 9 References History The contribution of manufacturing to Australia's gross domestic product peaked in the 1960s at 25%, and had dropped to 13% by 2001–2[1] and 10.5% by 2005–6[2]. In 2004–05, the manufacturing industry exported products worth $67,400 million, and employed 1.1 million people[3] In 2000–2001, $3300 million was spent on assistance to the manufacturing industry, with 40% going to the textile, clothing and footwear industry and the passenger motor vehicle industry.[4] At that time, manufacturing accounted for 48% of exports, and 45% of Australian research and development.[1] In 2008, the breakdown of manufacturing by state, and the fraction of gross state product (GSP) which it contributed, were as follows[5] State Fraction of manufacturing Fraction of GSP New South Wales 32 10 Victoria 28 12 Queensland 17 9 South Australia 8 13 Western Australia 10 8 Tasmania 3 13 Northern Territory 1 7 Australian Capital Territory 0.5 2 Between 2001 and 2007, the approximate breakdown by industry changed as follows[5] Industry Percent in 2001 Percent in 2007 Food, beverages and tobacco 19 19 Textile, clothing and footwear 5 3 Wood and paper products 7 6 Printing, publishing and recorded media 10 10 Petroleum, coal and chemical products 15 14 Non-metal mineral products 4 5 Metal products 18 19 Machinery and equipment 17 19 Other manufacturing 4 4 Food processing The food and beverage manufacturing industry is the largest in Australia. The sectors include the following:[6] Sector Turnover(2005–06, $millions) Meat and meat products 17,836 Beverage and malt manufacturing 13,289 Dairy products 9,991 Sugar and confectionery manufacturing 6,456 Fruit and vegetable processing 4,672 Bakery products 4,005 Flour mill and cereal food manufacturing 3,692 Oil and fat manufacturing 1,547 Seafood processing 1,330 * Other food manufacturing 8,554 Total 71,372 * Before the 2010 closure of the Port Lincoln Tuna cannery Textile industry Until trade liberalisation in the mid 1980s, Australia had a large textile industry[citation needed]. This decline continued through the first decade of the 21st century[5]. Since the 1980s, tariffs have steadily been reduced; in early 2010, the tariffs were reduced from 17.5% to 10% on clothing, and 7.5–10% to 5% for footwear and other textiles.[7] As of 2010, most manufacturing, even by Australian companies, is performed in China. Motor vehicles Main article: Automotive industry in Australia As of 2010, three companies manufacture cars in Australia: GM-Holden, Ford and Toyota. Mitsubishi Motors Australia ceased production in March 2008. Holden bodyworks are manufactured at Elizabeth, South Australia and engines are produced at the Fishermens Bend plant in Port Melbourne, Victoria. In 2006, Holden's export revenue was just under $1300 million.[8] Ford has two main factories, both in Victoria: located in the Geelong suburb of Norlane and the northern Melbourne suburb of Broadmeadows. Until 2006, Toyota had factories in Port Melbourne and Altona, Victoria. Since then, all manufacturing has been at Altona. In 2008, Toyota exported 101,668 vehicles worth $1900 million[9]. Chemical industry Australia has a chemical industry, including the manufacture of many petrochemicals[10]. Many mining companies, such as BHP Billiton and Comalco, perform initial processing of raw materials[11]. Similarly, Australia's agriculture feeds into the chemical industry. Tasmania produces 40% of the worlds raw narcotic materials[12]; some of this is locally converted into codeine and other pharmaceuticals in Tasmania by Tasmanian Alkaloids, owned by Johnson and Johnson, while GlaxoSmithKline processes some of the resulting poppy straw in Victoria. Currently Australian-made products The following Australasian-made products are still fairly readily available. For more boutique products, see the search engines below. Cars Toyota makes some medium-large cars (such as Camry) in Altona, Victoria. Holden and Ford make large cars at various factories around Australia Cleaning products The Geelong Brush Company makes brooms and other brushware Velvet soap is made by Unilever Solvol soap is made by the WD-40 company Clothing See above Food: Many staples are still manufactured in Australia. However many manufactured products such as sauces are imported. Hardware Some Dulux paint is made in the Hutt Valley (Wellington, NZ).[13] Lofty Ladders makes ladders Sutton Tools White goods Electrolux makes make large refrigerators in Orange, New South Wales, under brands such as Westinghouse (licensed from Westinghouse Electric (1998)), Simpson and Kelvinator.[14] Australian/NZ icons no longer made in Australia/NZ Many brands which used to be manufactured in Australasia no longer are. The following are notable examples. Clothing Pacific brands moved their manufacturing offshore in 2009, causing intense negative publicity. Tools Sidchrome was bought by Stanley in 1990, and manufacturing moved offshore See also Australian Made Ausbuy Australia's balance of payments Economy of Australia References ^ a b Productivity Commission (2004). Trends in Australian Manufacturing. http://129.3.20.41/eps/othr/papers/0402/0402003.pdf.  ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (7 February 2008). "1309.0 – Australia at a Glance, 2008". http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/1309.0Main%20Features22008?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=1309.0&issue=2008&num=&view=. Retrieved 13 February 2010.  ^ "Advanced Manufacturing". Australian Government. Austrade. http://www.austrade.com.sg/cap-manu.html. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ "Australian Manufacturing: A Brief History of Industry Policy and Trade Liberalisation". http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rp/1999-2000/2000rp07.htm. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ a b c "Australian manufacturing—structural trends 2001–02 to 2006–07". 24 November 2008. http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp16.htm. Retrieved 5 March 2010.  ^ "About Australia: Food Industry". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/foodindustry.html. Retrieved 6 March 2010.  ^ Peter Anderson (1 January 2010). "ACCI Welcomes textiles and car tariff cuts (ACCI media release 003/10)". http://www.acci.asn.au/text_files/media_releases/2010/003-10.pdf. Retrieved 13 February 2010.  ^ "Vehicle Exports". GM Holden. http://www.holden.com.au/corporate/about-holden/exports/vehicle-exports. Retrieved 23 August 2008.  ^ ""Exports"". http://www.toyota.com.au/about/exports. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ "Australia's chemical industry". http://www.chemlink.com.au/industry.htm. Retrieved 22 February 2010.  ^ "Chemicals in Australia". http://www.chemlink.com.au/lefcompsynth.htm. Retrieved 22 February 2010.  ^ "Brand Tasmania". http://www.brandtasmania.com.au/members.php?ACT=details&cat=15&menu_code=600.500&mid=69. Retrieved 22 February 2010.  ^ Wellington Scoop. "Dulux investing $28m in Hutt factory". Press release. http://wellington.scoop.co.nz/?p=10945. Retrieved 16 May 2011.  ^ "Manufacturing – Electrolux and Geoff Hort Engineering". Orange City Council. http://www.orange.nsw.gov.au/download.cfm?DownloadFile=02A76022-E7F2-2F96-3E36579EC72A5A24. 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