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HU-16 Albatross Restored Navy UF-1/HU-16C BuNo 131906, built June 1953 Role Flying boat Manufacturer Grumman First flight 1949 Introduced 1949 Primary users United States Air Force United States Coast Guard United States Navy Produced 1949-1961 Number built 466 U.S. Coast Guard Grumman HU-16E Albatross and a Sikorsky HH-52A Seaguard in March 1964, probably at CGAS Mobile, AL Air Force HU-16B HU-16E on static display at Dyess AFB, TX Chalk's International Airlines Albatross arriving in Miami Harbor from Nassau, Bahamas, in 1987 The Grumman HU-16 Albatross is a large twin-radial engine amphibious flying boat. Originally designated SA-16, it was renamed HU-16 in 1962. Contents 1 Design and development 2 Operational history 3 Civil operations 4 Accidents and incidents 5 Variants 6 Operators 7 Survivors 8 Specifications (HU-16B) 9 Notable appearances in media 10 See also 11 References 12 External links // Design and development An improvement of the design of the Grumman Mallard, the Albatross was developed to land in open ocean situations to rescue downed pilots. Its deep-V cross-section and substantial length enable it to land in the open sea. The Albatross was designed for optimal 4 ft seas, and could land in more severe conditions, but required JATO for takeoff in 8-10 ft seas or greater. Since the aircraft weighs over 12,500 pounds, pilots of US-registered Albatross aircraft must have a type rating. There is a yearly Albatross fly-in at Boulder City, Nevada where Albatross pilots can become type rated. Operational history The majority of Albatrosses were used by the U.S. Air Force, primarily by the Air Rescue Service, and initially designated as SA-16. The USAF utilized the SA-16 extensively in Korea for combat rescue, where it gained a reputation as a rugged and seaworthy craft. Later, the redesignated HU-16B (long-wing variant) Albatross was used by the U.S. Air Force's Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service and saw extensive combat service during the Vietnam conflict. In addition a small number of Air National Guard Air Commando Groups were equipped with HU-16s for covert infiltration and extraction of special forces from 1956 to 1971.[1] The U.S. Navy also employed the HU-16D Albatross as a Search and rescue (SAR) aircraft from coastal naval air stations, both stateside and overseas. It was also employed as an operational support aircraft worldwide and for "skunk runs" from the former NAS Agana, Guam during the Vietnam War. Goodwill flights were also common to the surrounding Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in the early 1970s. Open water landings and water takeoff training using JATO was also conducted frequently by U.S. Navy HU-16s from locations such as NAS Agana, Guam; Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; NAS Barbers Point, Hawaii; and NAS Pensacola, Florida, among other locations. The HU-16 was also operated by the U.S. Coast Guard as both a coastal and long-range open ocean SAR aircraft for many years until it was supplanted by the HU-25 Guardian and HC-130 Hercules. The final Navy HU-16 flight was made 13 August 1976 when an Albatross was delivered to the Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola. [2] Civil operations In the mid-1960s the U.S. Department of the Interior bailed 3 military Grumman HU-16's from the U.S. Navy and established the Trust Territory Airlines in the Pacific to serve the islands of Micronesia. Pan American World Airways and finally Continental Airlines' Air Micronesia operated the Albatrosses serving Yap, Palau, Chuuk (Truk) and Pohnpei from Guam until 1970, when adequate island runways were built, allowing land operations. In 1970, Conroy Aircraft marketed a remanufactured HU-16A with Rolls-Royce Dart turboprop engines as the Conroy Turbo Albatross, but only the single prototype (registration N16CA) was ever built. Many surplus Albatrosses were sold to civilian operators, mostly to private owners. These aircraft are operated under either Experimental - Exhibition or Restricted category and cannot be used for commercial operations, except under very limited conditions. In the early 1980s Chalk's International Airlines owned by Merv Griffin's Resorts International had 13 Albatrosses converted to Standard category as G-111s. This made them eligible to be used in scheduled airline operations. These aircraft had extensive modification from the standard military configuration, including rebuilt wings with titanium wing spar caps, additional doors and modifications to existing doors and hatches, stainless steel engine oil tanks, dual engine fire extinguishing systems on each engine and propeller auto feather systems installed. The G-111s were only operated for a few years and then put in storage in Arizona. Most are still parked there, but some have been returned to regular flight operations with private operators. Accidents and incidents On 9 January 1966, A Republic of China HU-16 carrying three Red Chinese naval defectors was shot down by Communist MiGs over the Straits of Formosa, just hours after they had surrendered their landing ship and asked for asylum. The Albatross was attacked just 15 minutes after departing the island of Matsu on a 135 mile flight to Taipei. According to a U.S. Defense Department announcement, the attack was a swift - and perhaps unintentional - retribution for the Communist sailors who killed seven fellow crew members during their pre-dawn escape to freedom. [3] On 5 November 2009, Albatross N120FB of Albatross Adventures crashed shortly after take-off from St. Lucie County International Airport, Fort Pierce, Florida. An engine failed shortly after take-off, the aircraft was damaged beyond economic repair.[4] Variants XJR2F-1 - Prototype designation, two built. HU-16A (originally SA-16A) - USAF version HU-16A (originally UF-1) - Indonesian version HU-16B (originally SA-16A) - USAF version (modified with long wing) SHU-16B (modified HU-16B for Anti-Submarine Warfare) - export version HU-16C (originally UF-1) - US Navy version LU-16C (originally UF-1L) - US Navy version TU-16C (originally UF-1T) - US Navy version HU-16D (originally UF-1) - US Navy version (modified with long wing) HU-16D (originally UF-2) - German version (built with long wing) HU-16E (originally UF-1G) - US Coast Guard version (modified with long wing) HU-16E (originally SA-16A) - USAF version (modified with long wing) G-111 (originally SA-16A) - derived from USAF, JASDF, and German originals) CSR-110 - RCAF version Operators  Argentina  Brazil  Canada  Chile  Republic of China  Colombia Colombian Air Force  Germany German Navy  Greece Hellenic Air Force  Iceland Icelandic Coast Guard  Indonesia  Italy  Japan  Malaysia  Mexico  Norway Royal Norwegian Air Force  Pakistan Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy - Pakistan Naval Air Arm  Peru  Philippines Philippine Air Force Philippine Navy  Portugal  Spain  Thailand Royal Thai Navy  United States United States Air Force United States Coast Guard United States Navy  Venezuela Survivors Preserved Hellenic AF aircraft at Dekelia AB. HU-16B, AF Serial No. 51-5282, at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. This was USAF's last operational HU-16. On 4 July 1973 it established a world record for twin-engine amphibians when it reached 32,883 feet. Two weeks later it was flown to the Air Force Museum. [5] HU-16B, AF Serial No. 51-7176, was at the Pate Museum of Transportation in Cresson, Texas. It is being disassembled and moved to Coast Guard Air Station Clearwater in Clearwater, Florida where it is to be restored. HU-16E, AF Serial No. 51-7251, at Dyess Linear Air Park, Dyess AFB, Texas HU-16C, US Navy Albatross displaying NAS Alameda and designation number 1911, assigned to USS Carl Vinson. Currently located on the north end of the field at Charles M. Schulz – Sonoma County Airport in reportedly flyable condition. Jimmy Buffett's Hemisphere Dancer, now the centerpiece of Universal Studios' Margaritaville Cafe in Orlando, Florida. Restored US Navy UF-1/HU-16C, Navy Bureau Number (BuNo) 131906, originally built June 1953 Swimwear manufacturer Billabong operates a well-equipped Albatross for surf touring. Quiksilver also operates a similarly-equipped Albatross for surf touring. Several private owners have Albatrosses equipped with sleeping quarters which can be used as an airborne recreational vehicle (sleep-aboard), either at an airport or on the water. HU-16B Albatross, AF Serial No. 51-7163, at Castle Air Museum adjacent to the (former Castle AFB, Atwater, California Two HU-16Bs of the Hellenic Air Force are on display at Dekelia (Tatoi) Air Base, north of Athens. HU-16E of the United States Navy (BuNo 141266) and an HU-16E of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG 7236) at the National Museum of Naval Aviation at NAS Pensacola, Florida. These aircraft were the last operational HU-16s in their respective services. HU-16A, AF Serial No. 51-0022 at the Pima Air and Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona. HU-16E, USCG 7250, at CGAS Cape Cod at Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts. HU-16E, USCG 1293, March Field Air Museum, March ARB, California HU-16B, AF Serial No. 51-1280, adjacent to the 58th Special Operations Wing compound at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. HU-16E, USCG 7247, at CGAS Elizabeth City, North Carolina. HU-16B, N44HQ, owned and operated by Row 44 and equipped with in-flight WiFi as a test and marketing tool. SHU-16B, in Chilean Air Force colors as part of the static exhibition at the Museo Aeronáutico in Santiago de Chile HU-16B at Warfield Air National Guard Base, in Baltimore, Maryland. HU-16 of the Republic of China Air Force at Chung Cheng Aviation Museum, Taipei, Taiwan HU-16 "1012" of the Republic of China Air Force at Chiayi Air Base, Chiayi, Taiwan HU-16 of the Philippine Air Force at Jesus Villamor Air BaseMuseum, Pasay, Philippines Specifications (HU-16B) Data from Albatross - Amphibious Airborne Angel [6] General characteristics Crew: 4-6 Capacity: 10 passengers Length: 62 ft 10 in (19.16 m) Wingspan: 96 ft 8 in (29.47 m) Height: 25 ft 10 in (7.88 m) Wing area: 1035 ft²[7] (96.2 m²) Empty weight: 22,883 lb (10,401 kg) Loaded weight: 30,353 lb (13,797 kg) Max takeoff weight: 37,500 lb (17,045 kg) Powerplant: 2× Wright R-1820-76 Cyclone 9 nine-cylinder single-row air-cooled radial engine, 1,425 hp (1,063 kW) each Fuel Capacity: 675 US Gallons (2,550 L) internally, plus 400 US Gal (1,512 L) in wingtip floats plus two 300 US Gallon (1,135 L) drop tanks Performance Maximum speed: 205 knots (236 mph, 380 km/h) Cruise speed: 108 knots (124 mph, 200 km/h) Stall speed: 64 knots (74 mph, 119 km/h) Range: 2,478 nmi (2,850 mi, 4,589 km) Service ceiling: 21,500 ft (6,550 m) Rate of climb: 1,450 ft/min (7.4 m/s) Armament None Notable appearances in media Main article: Aircraft in fiction#HU-16 Albatross See also Related development Grumman Goose Grumman Mallard Comparable aircraft Canadair CL-215 PBY Catalina References ^ Albatross Was a Maryland Air Guard Classic ^ ^ United Press International, "Migs [sic] Shoot Down Unarmed Chinese Plane", Playground Daily News, Fort Walton Beach, Florida, Monday, 10 January 1966, Volume 19, Number 342, page 2. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 November 2009.  ^ ^ Dorr 1991, p.196. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p.230. Dorr, Robert F. "Albatross - Amphibious Airborne Angel". Air International, October 1991, Vol. 41, No. 4. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 193–201. Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. London:Putnam, Second edition, 1976. ISBN 0 370 10054 9. Production listing, source for Variants section Flight test report External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: HU-16 Albatross Historical Aircraft page on Northrop Grumman Web Site HU-16 history, including other designations The Grumman Albatross Site Summary at Coast Guard Historian's site v • d • e Grumman and Northrop Grumman aircraft Manufacturer designations G-1 (floats only) · G-2 (floats only) · G-3 · G-4 · G-5 · G-6 · G-7 · G-8 · G-9 · G-10 · G-11 · G-12 · G-13 · G-14 · G-15 · G-16 · G-17 · G-18 · G-19 · G-20 · G-21 · G-22 · G-23 · G-24 · G-25 · G-26 · G-27 · G-29 · G-30 · G-31 · G-32 · G-33 · G-34 · G-35 · G-36 · G-37 · G-38 · G-39 · G-40 · G-41 · G-42 · G-43 · G-44 · G-45 · G-46 · G-47 · G-48 · G-49 · G-50 · G-51 · G-52 · G-53 · G-54 · G-55 · G-56 · G-57 · G-58 · G-59 · G-60 · G-61 · G-62 · G-63 · G-64 · G-65 · G-66 · G-67 · G-68 · G-69 · G-70 · G-71 · G-72 · G-73 · G-74 · G-75 · G-76 · G-77 · G-78 · G-79 · G-80 · G-81 · G-82 · G-83 · G-84 · G-85 · G-86 · G-87 · G-88 · G-89 · G-90 · G-91 · G-92 · G-93 · G-94 · G-96 · G-97 · G-98 · G-99 · G-100 · G-101 · G-102 · G-103 · G-104 · G-105 · G-106 · G-107 · G-108 · G-109 · G-110 · G-111 · G-112 · G-113 · G-114 · G-115 · G-116 · G-117 · G-118 · G-119 · G-120 · G-121 · G-122 · G-123 · G-124 · G-125 · G-126 · G-127 · G-128 · G-134 · G-159 · G-164 · G-191 · G-231 · G-234 · G-251 · G-262 · G-303 · G-426 · G-712 · G-1128 · G-1159 By role Piston fighters FF · F2F · F3F · F4F · XF5F · XP-50 · F6F · XP-65 · F7F · F8F Jet fighters F9F · F9F/F-9 · XF10F · F11F/F-11 · XF12F · F-111B · F-14 Attack/Patrol SF · TBF · XTSF · TB2F · AF · S-2 · A-6 Recon/Scouts SF · E-1 · OV-1 · EA-6 · E-2 Utility/Transports UC-103 · JF · J2F · OA-12 · JRF · J3F · OA-9 · OA-13 · OA-14/J4F · U-16/JR2F/UF · C-1 · C-2 Civil aircraft Mallard · Ag Cat · Kitten · Tadpole · Gulfstream I · Gulfstream II Others Apollo Lunar Module · EF-111  · X-29 · Q-8 · X-47 By name Ag Cat · Albatross · Avenger · Bearcat · Cougar · Duck · Goose · Greyhound · Guardian · Gulfhawk III · Gulfstream I · Gulfstream II · Hawkeye · Hellcat · Intruder · Jaguar · Kitten · Mallard · Mohawk · Panther · Prowler · Skyrocket · Tiger · Tigercat · Tadpole · Tomcat · Tracer · Tracker · Trader · Wildcat · Widgeon v • d • e USAAC/USAAF observation aircraft Observation O-1  • O-2  • XO-3  • XO-4  • O-5  • O-6  • O-7  • O-8  • O-9  • XO-10  • O-11  • O-12  • O-14  • XO-14  • XO-15  • XO-16  • O-17  • XO-18  • O-19  • YO-20  • XO-21  • O-22  • YO-23  • O-24  • O-25  • Y1O-26  • Y1O-27  • O-28  • O-29  • O-30  • O-31  • O-32  • Y1O-33  • O-34  • O-35  • XO-36  • O-37  • O-38  • O-39  • O-40  • Y1O-41  • O-42  • O-43  • XO-44  • O-45  • O-46  • O-47  • XO-48  • O-49  • YO-50  • YO-51  • O-52  • O-53  • YO-54  • YO-55  • O-56  • O-57  • O-58  • O-59  • O-60  • XO-61  • O-62  • XO-63 Observation Amphibian OA-1  • OA-2  • OA-3  • OA-4  • OA-5  • OA-6  • OA-7  • OA-8  • OA-9  • OA-10  • OA-11  • OA-12  • OA-13  • OA-14  • OA-15  • SA-16 v • d • e USN/USMC patrol aircraft designations 1923-1962 Patrol Boeing XPB • PB • P2B • P3B Douglas PD • P2D • P3D Grumman PF Hall PH • P2H General Aviation PJ Keystone PK Martin PM • P2M • P3M • P4M • P5M • P6M • P7M Naval Aircraft Factory PN • P2N • P4N Lockheed PO Sikorsky PS • P2S Lockheed PV • P2V • P3V Consolidated PY • P2Y • P3Y • P4Y-1/P4Y-2 • P5Y • P6Y Patrol Bomber Boeing PBB • PB2B North American PBJ Martin PBM • PB2M Naval Aircraft Factory PBN Lockheed PBO Sikorsky PBS Vickers Canada PBV Consolidated PBY • PB2Y • PB3Y • PB4Y Patrol, Torpedo Bomber Hall PTBH v • d • e USN/USMC utility aircraft designations 1935-1955 Utility Fokker JA Noorduyn JA Beechcraft JB Curtiss-Wright JC Douglas JD Bellanca JE Grumman JF • J2F • J3F • J4F Stearman-Hammond JH Fairchild JK • J2K Columbia JL Martin JM Lockheed JO Fairchild JQ • J2Q Ford JR Waco JW • J2W Utility Transport Beechcraft JRB Cessna JRC Grumman JRF • JR2F Martin JRM Sikorsky JRS • JR2S v • d • e USN/USMC utility aircraft designations 1955–1962 de Havilland Canada UC • (U2C not actually used) Grumman UF Piper UO Lockheed UV v • d • e United States tri-service utility aircraft designations post-1962 U-1 • U-2 • U-3 • U-4 • U-5 • U-6 • U-7 • U-8 • U-9 • U-10 • U-11 • (U-12 to U-15 not assigned) • U-16 • U-17 • U-18 • U-19 • U-20 • U-21 • U-22 • U-23 • U-24 • U-25 • U-26 • U-27 • U-28 • (U-29 to U-37 not assigned) • U-38 v • d • e Lists relating to aviation General Timeline of aviation · Aircraft (manufacturers) · Aircraft engines (manufacturers) · Rotorcraft (manufacturers) · Airlines (defunct) · Airports · Civil authorities · Museums Military Air forces · Aircraft weapons · Experimental aircraft · Missiles · Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) Accidents/incidents General · Commercial (airliners) · Military Records Airspeed · Altitude · Distance · Endurance · Most-produced aircraft