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This article is about the community in Canada's far north. For the island community on the west coast of British Columbia, see Alert Bay, British Columbia. Alert —  Weather station and signals intelligence base  — Environment Canada air chemistry observatory Motto: Inuit Nunangata Ungata (Beyond the Inuit Land) Alert Coordinates: 82°30′05″N 062°20′20″W / 82.50139°N 62.33889°W / 82.50139; -62.33889Coordinates: 82°30′05″N 062°20′20″W / 82.50139°N 62.33889°W / 82.50139; -62.33889 Country  Canada Territory Nunavut Region Qikiqtaaluk Region Population (2006)  - Total 5 Alert, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, is the northernmost permanently inhabited place in the world,[1] 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole.[2] It takes its name from HMS Alert, which wintered 10 km (6.2 mi) east of the present station, off what is now Cape Sheridan, in 1875–1876. Alert was reported to have five permanent inhabitants according to the 2006 census[3] (but owing to the way the Canadian Census is compiled, the true population of Alert could be between 1 and 10 inhabitants[4]). It also has many temporary inhabitants as it hosts a military signals intelligence radio receiving facility at Canadian Forces Station Alert (CFS Alert), as well as a co-located Environment Canada weather station, a Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) atmosphere monitoring laboratory, and the Alert Airport. Contents 1 History 2 Current events 3 Geography 4 Climate 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links History Alert is named after HMS Alert, a British ship which wintered about 10 km (6.2 mi) away in 1875–76.[5] Sir George Nares was the first known person to reach the northern end of Ellesmere Island; he arrived in HMS Alert in 1875–76. The weather station was established in 1950, and the military station in 1958. Shortly after the close of World War II, Charles J Hubbard began to rouse interest in the United States and Canada for the establishment of a network of Arctic stations. His plan, in broad perspective, envisaged the establishment of two main stations, one in Greenland and the other within the Archipelago, which could be reached by sea supply. These main stations would then serve as advance bases from which a number of smaller stations would be established by air. The immediate plans contemplated the establishment of weather stations only, but it was felt that a system of weather stations would also provide a nucleus of transportation, communications and settlements which would greatly aid programmes of research in many other fields of science. It was recognized that ultimate action would depend on international co-operation since the land masses involved were under Canadian and Danish control. Nine crew members of a Royal Canadian Air Force Lancaster died in a crash while making an airdrop of supplies to the station in 1950. A C-130 Hercules, part of Operation Boxtop 22, crashed about 30 km (19 mi) short of the runway on October 30, 1991. Of the 18 aboard, four died in the crash, while the pilot died during the 30 hours that it took search and rescue teams to reach the crash site under blizzard conditions. The crash was the subject of several books, including Death and Deliverance: The True Story of an Airplane Crash at the North Pole by Robert Mason Lee, as well as a film, Ordeal in the Arctic, starring Richard Chamberlain. Current events The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation reported in April 2006 that the heating costs for the station had risen. As a result of the rising costs the Canadian Forces proposed cutbacks to support jobs by using private contractors.[6] Also in April 2006, the Roly McLenahan Torch, used to light the flame in Whitehorse, Yukon for the 2007 Canada Games, passed through Alert. In August 2006, the Canadian Prime Minister, Stephen Harper, made a visit to Alert as part of his campaign to promote Canadian sovereignty in the north. The Olympic Torch en route to the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver passed through Alert on 9 November 2009.[citation needed] Geography Orthographic projection centred over Alert, Nunavut. Alert is located 12 km (7.5 mi) west of Cape Sheridan, the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island, on the shore of the ice-covered Lincoln Sea. Alert lies just 817 km (508 mi) from the North Pole; the nearest Canadian city is Iqaluit, 2,092 km (1,300 mi) away. The settlement is surrounded by a rugged hills and valleys. The shore is composed primarily of slate and shale. The sea is covered with pack ice for most of the year but the ice pack does move out in the summer months, leaving open water. Evaporation rates are also very low, as average monthly temperatures are above freezing only in July and August. Other places on Ellesmere Island are the research base at Eureka and the Inuit community of Grise Fiord, 800 km to the southwest. Climate Alert has a polar climate. The weather is very cold, and there is snow cover for 10 months of the year on average. The warmest month, July, has an average temperature of 3.3 °C (37.9 °F). Alert is also very dry, averaging only 153.8 mm (6.06 in) of precipitation per year. Most of the precipitation occurs during the months of July, August and September, mostly in the form of snow. On average there is 16.1 mm (0.63 in) of rain which occurs between June and September. Alert sees very little snowfall during the rest of the year. September is usually the month with the heaviest snowfall. February is the coldest month of the year. Snowfall can occur during any month of the year, although there might be about 20 frost free days in an average summer.[7] Being in the Arctic Circle, Alert experiences polar night from the middle of October until the end of February, and the midnight sun from the first week of April until the first week of September. There are two relatively short periods of twilight from about 13 February to 22 March and the second from 19 September to 22 October.[8] Climate data for Alert Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Humidex 0 0 -2.4 -1.1 6.6 18.1 19.4 23.8 8.4 3.9 -1.1 1.4 23.8 Record high °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 1.1 (34) -2.2 (28) -0.2 (31.6) 7.8 (46) 18.2 (64.8) 20.0 (68) 19.5 (67.1) 11.2 (52.2) 4.4 (39.9) 0.6 (33.1) 3.2 (37.8) 20.0 (68) Average high °C (°F) -28.8 (-19.8) -29.8 (-21.6) -28.7 (-19.7) -20.5 (-4.9) -8.7 (16.3) 1.6 (34.9) 5.9 (42.6) 3.3 (37.9) -6.0 (21.2) -15.8 (3.6) -22.8 (-9) -26.4 (-15.5) -14.7 (5.5) Daily mean °C (°F) -32.4 (-26.3) -33.4 (-28.1) -32.4 (-26.3) -24.4 (-11.9) -11.8 (10.8) -0.8 (30.6) 3.3 (37.9) 0.8 (33.4) -9.2 (15.4) -19.4 (-2.9) -26.4 (-15.5) -30.1 (-22.2) -18.0 (-0.4) Average low °C (°F) -35.9 (-32.6) -37.0 (-34.6) -36.1 (-33) -28.2 (-18.8) -14.9 (5.2) -3.2 (26.2) 0.7 (33.3) -1.8 (28.8) -12.2 (10) -22.8 (-9) -30.0 (-22) -33.7 (-28.7) -21.3 (-6.3) Record low °C (°F) -48.9 (-56) -50.0 (-58) -49.4 (-56.9) -45.6 (-50.1) -29.0 (-20.2) -13.9 (7) -6.3 (20.7) -15.0 (5) -28.2 (-18.8) -39.4 (-38.9) -43.5 (-46.3) -46.1 (-51) -50.0 (-58) Wind chill -64.7 -60.5 -59.5 -56.8 -40.8 -21.1 -10.3 -19.2 -36.9 -49.4 -53.7 -57.3 -64.7 Precipitation mm (inches) 6.8 (0.268) 6.3 (0.248) 7.0 (0.276) 10.3 (0.406) 11.0 (0.433) 11.1 (0.437) 27.8 (1.094) 21.2 (0.835) 23.4 (0.921) 12.3 (0.484) 9.7 (0.382) 6.8 (0.268) 153.8 (6.055) Rainfall mm (inches) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.8 (0.031) 11.1 (0.437) 4.0 (0.157) 0.1 (0.004) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 16.1 (0.634) Snowfall cm (inches) 8.5 (3.35) 7.5 (2.95) 8.1 (3.19) 11.7 (4.61) 16.6 (6.54) 12.3 (4.84) 17.3 (6.81) 18.0 (7.09) 33.6 (13.23) 18.0 (7.09) 13.1 (5.16) 8.7 (3.43) 173.3 (68.23) Avg. precipitation days 8.1 7.4 7.6 7.7 8.3 6.6 10.3 10.2 11.3 10.4 8.7 8.9 105.5 Avg. rainy days 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.93 6 3 0.28 0 0 0 10.3 Avg. snowy days 8.8 7.8 8 8 9 6.1 6.3 8.2 11.5 11.3 9.3 9.3 103.5 Sunshine hours n/a n/a n/a 345.3 418.4 321.4 293.4 239.5 92.0 n/a n/a n/a 1,701 Source no. 1: 1971–2000 Environment Canada[7] Source no. 2: Sunshine data from 1961–1990 Environment Canada[9] See also Svalbard Baffin, Unorganized References ^ Reynolds, Lindor (August 31, 2000). "Life is cold and hard and desolate at Alert, Nunavut". Guelph Mercury. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/thestar/access/445998211.html?dids=445998211:445998211&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Aug+31%2C+2000&author=Reynolds%2C+Lindor&pub=Daily+Mercury&desc=Life+is+cold+and+hard+and+desolate+at+Alert%2C+Nunavut&pqatl=google. Retrieved March 16, 2010.  ("Twice a year, the military resupply Alert, the world's northernmost settlement.") ^ "Alert, Nunavut". Government of Canada. http://www.grc.k12.nf.ca/climatecanada/alert.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-09.  article mirror ^ Statistics Canada ^ [1] ^ A History of the Canadian Coast Guard and Marine Services ^ "Costly fuel prompts cuts at northern military station". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). 2006-04-13. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2006/04/13/north-alert-military060413.html. Retrieved 2008-08-09.  article mirror ^ a b Environment Canada—Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Retrieved 17 June 2011. ^ Sunrise/Sunset/Sun Angle Calculator ^ Environment Canada—Canadian Climate Normals 1961–1990. Retrieved 17 June 2011. Further reading Bottenheim, Jan W, Hacene Boudries, Peter C Brickell, and Elliot Atlas. 2002. "Alkenes in the Arctic Boundary Layer at Alert, Nunavut, Canada". Atmospheric Environment. 36, no. 15: 2585. Diggle, Dennis A., and David G. Otto. Drilling of an Arctic Protected Cable Route, Alert, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. [Victoria, B.C.]: Defence Research Establishment Pacific, Research and Development Branch, Dept. of National Defence, 1994. Morrison, R. I. G., N. C. Davidson, and Theunis Piersma. Daily Energy Expenditure and Water Turnover of Shorebirds at Alert, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. Progress notes (Canadian Wildlife Service), no. 211. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service, 1997. ISBN 0662257952 External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Alert, Nunavut Canada National Defence page on CFS Alert Climate information The Canadian Encyclopedia: Alert, Nunavut Map of Nunavut showing location of Alert Current weather conditions (Weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca) Personal visit to CFS Alert v · d · eArctic Cordillera of Canada Ranges Adam · Baffin · Blackwelder  · Blue · Boulder · British Empire · Bruce · Byan Martin · Challenger · Conger · Cunningham · Douro · Everett · Garfield · Geodetic · Grinnell · Grogan Morgan · Haddington · Hartz · Inglefield · Innuitian · Jeffries · Joy · Krag · Krieger · Kaumajet · Osborn · Precipitous · Prince of Wales · Princess Margaret  · Sawtooth · Selamiut · Scoresby · Stokes · Swiss · Thorndike · Torngat · Treuter · United States · Victoria and Albert · White Triplets Mountains Angilaaq · Angna · Arrowhead · Arthur · Asgard · Ayles · Baldr · Barbeau · Bastille · Battle · Beaufort · Biederbick · Bishop's Mitre · Brave · Breidablik · Caubvick · Cirque · Commonwealth · Eugene · Highpointer · Innuit · Kisimngiuqtuq · Midnight Sun · Nukap · Odin · Outlook · Oxford · Qiajivik · Stokes · Thor · Thule · Torngarsoak · Ukpik · Whisler · White Crown Passes Akshayuk · Ayr · Bryant · Cockscomb · Eskimo · Eureka · Fortress · Glacier · Kingnait · Perfection · Pioneer · Piper · Polar Bear · Revoir · Singeyer · Strand Fiord · Sverdrup · Van Hauen · Yelverton Glaciers Agassiz Ice Cap · Barnes Ice Cap · Benedict · Coronation · Devon Ice Cap  · Disraeli · Eugenie · Gull · Jimi Maasi · Kaparoqtalik · Keyhole · Kiitarayuk · Macculloch · Narsarsuk · Nuuksuq · Oliver · Parrish · Penny Ice Cap · Sermilik · Sven Hedin · Turnabout · Utinatuk · West Pioneer Regions Amund Ringnes · Axel Heiberg · Baffin · Bathurst · Bylot  · Coburg · Cornwall · Devon · Ellef Ringnes · Ellesmere · Helena · Île Vanier · Labrador · Lougheed · Quebec Communities Alert · Clyde River · Eureka · Grise Fiord · Pangnirtung · Pond Inlet · Iqaluit · Qikiqtarjuaq · List of communities in Nunavut Parks Auyuittuq · Quttinirpaaq · Sirmilik · Torngat Mountains v · d · e Subdivisions of Nunavut Regions Nunavut (electoral district) · Kitikmeot Unorganized · Kivalliq · Qikiqtaaluk Unorganized Communities Arctic Bay · Arviat · Baker Lake · Bathurst Inlet · Cambridge Bay · Cape Dorset · Chesterfield Inlet · Clyde River · Coral Harbour · Gjoa Haven · Grise Fiord · Hall Beach · Igloolik · Iqaluit Apex · Kimmirut · Kugaaruk · Kugluktuk · Pangnirtung · Pond Inlet · Qikiqtarjuaq · Rankin Inlet · Repulse Bay · Resolute · Sanikiluaq · Taloyoak · Whale Cove Weather stations and Canadian Forces bases Alert · CFS Alert · Ennadai · Eureka · Isachsen · Nanisivik Naval Facility Mine sites Proposed Baffinland Iron Mine Under construction Boston Camp · Doris North · Hope Bay  · Meadowbank Gold Mine Defunct Bent Horn Mine · Cullaton Lake/Shear Lake Mine · Jericho Diamond Mine · Lupin Mine · Nanisivik Mine · Polaris mine · Rankin Inlet Mine DEW line and NWS sites Bernard Harbour · Bray Island · Brevoort Island · Broughton Island · Byron Bay · Cambridge Bay · Cape Dyer · Cape Hooper · Cape Mcloughlin · Cape Mercy · Cape Peel West · Cape Young · Clifton Point · Clinton Point · Croker River · Dewar Lakes · Durban Island · Edinburgh Island · Ekalugad · Gjoa Haven · Gladman Point · Hall Beach · Harding River · Hat Island · Jenny Lind Island · Kangok Fjord · Keats Point · Keith Bay · Kivitoo · Lady Franklin Point · Lailor River · Loks Land · Longstaff Bluff · Mackar Inlet · Matheson Point · Nudluardjuk Lake · Pelly Bay · Resolution Island · Ross Point · Rowley Island · Scarpa Lake · Shepherd Bay · Simpson Lake · Sturt Point Former Amadjuak · Brooman Point Village · Craig Harbour · Dundas Harbour · Iglunga · Killiniq · Native Point · Nuwata · Padlei · Port Leopold · Tavani Hudson's Bay Company trading posts Amadjuak · Apex · Arctic Bay · Baker Lake · Bathurst Inlet · Bay Chimo · Belcher Islands · Blacklead Island · Cambridge Bay · Cape Dorset · Charlton Island Depot · Chesterfield Inlet · Clyde River · Coats Island · Dundas Harbour · Eskimo Point · Fort Hearne · Fort Ross · Frobisher Bay · Gjoa Haven · Igloolik · Kent Peninsula · King William Island · Kugaryuak · Lake Harbour · Mansel Island · Nueltin House · Padley · Pangnirtung · Pangnirtung Fox Farm · Perry River · Ponds Inlet · Port Leopold · Port Burwell · Repulse Bay · Southampton Island · Tavane · Tree River · Wager Inlet