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Leonides Alvis Leonides radial engine preserved at the Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester Type Radial engine National origin United Kingdom Manufacturer Alvis First run 1936 Major applications Percival Pembroke Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer Developed into Alvis Leonides Major The Alvis Leonides was a British air-cooled nine-cylinder radial aero engines first developed by Alvis in 1936.[1] Contents 1 Design and development 2 Applications 2.1 Production 2.2 Conversions 2.3 Prototypes 3 Survivors 4 Engines on display 5 Specifications (Leonides) 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Design and development Development of the nine-cylinder engine was led by Capt. George Thomas Smith-Clarke. The prototype engine, called 9ARS and which weighed 693 lb and developed 450 hp, was run in December 1936. In 1938 Airspeed (1934) Ltd lent their test pilot, George Errington, and their much rebuilt Bristol Bulldog (K3183), to carry out test flights. Development was continued at a reduced pace during the Second World War and following testing in an Airspeed Oxford and an Airspeed Consul (VX587) Alvis was ready to market the engine in 1947 as the Series 500 (502, 503 and sub-types) for aeroplanes and Series 520 for helicopters. (Most helicopter engines were direct drive - no reduction gearbox - with a centrifugal clutch and fan cooling). The first production use was the Percival Prince which flew in July 1948 and the Westland Sikorsky S-51 and Westland Dragonfly helicopters. From 1959 the stroke was increased to 4.8 inch for the Series 530 (mainly the Mk. 531 for Twin Pioneers) rated at 640 hp. It was Britain’s last high-power production piston aero-engine when manufacture ceased in 1966. Applications Production Leonides 173 as fitted to the Bristol Sycamore Bristol Sycamore – 1x Mk. 173, 550 hp (410 kW) Percival P.66 President/Prince - 2 x 503/7A, Mk 128 01/2, 540/560 hp (RAF: Pembroke, RN; Sea Prince) Percival Provost – 1x 126, 550-hp (410 kW) Scottish Aviation Pioneer – 1 x 503/7A, Mk 128 01/2, 540/560 hp Scottish Aviation Twin PioneerCC1 – 2 x 514/8, 550 hp Scottish Aviation Twin PioneerCC2 – 2 x 531/8,Mk138, 640 hp Westland Dragonfly – 1x 521/1, 520shp (388 kW) Westland Widgeon – 1x 521/1, 520shp (388 kW) Conversions Harker Leo-cat – 1x 560 hp (418 kW) Server-Aero Leo-cat – 1x 560 hp (418 kW) Prototypes Agusta AZ8-L 4x 503/2 de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver Mk.2 – 1x 502/4, 520 hp Fairey Gyrodyne – one 525 hp to power compressor Handley Page H.P.R.2 (WE505 only) – 1 x 502/4 550 hp SR-N1 Hovercraft - the first hovercraft Survivors The world’s only surviving Gloster Gauntlet, formerly powered by a Bristol Mercury VI engine, is now powered by a Leonides 503. A privately owned, Leonides-powered Percival Pembroke remains airworthy in March 2010.[2] Engines on display Preserved Alvis Leonides engines are on public display at the following museums: Fleet Air Arm Museum Midland Air Museum Museum of Science and Industry (Manchester) Royal Air Force Museum Cosford Shuttleworth Collection The Helicopter Museum (Weston) Specifications (Leonides) Alvis Leonides radial engine preserved at the Midland Air Museum General characteristics Type: 9-cylinder supercharged air-cooled radial piston engine. Bore: 4.8 inch (122 mm) Stroke: 4.41 inch (112 mm) Displacement: 718.6 in3 (11.8 L) Diameter: 41 inch (1.04 m) Dry weight: 815 lb (370 kg) Components Valvetrain: Two pushrod-actuated poppet valves per cylinder with sodium-cooled exhaust valve. Supercharger: Single speed, single stage, boost pressure automatically linked to the throttle. Fuel system: Hobson single-point fuel injection unit. Fuel type: Petrol, 115 Octane Oil system: Dry sump Cooling system: Air-cooled. Performance Power output: 550 hp (410 kW) See also Related development Alvis Leonides Major Comparable engines Lycoming R-680 Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wright R-790 Related lists List of aircraft engines References Notes ^ Gunston 1989, p.13. ^ G-INFO - Percival Pembroke Retrieved: 25 March 2010 Bibliography Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9 Lumsden, Alec. British Piston Engines and their Aircraft. Marlborough, Wiltshire: Airlife Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-85310-294-6. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Alvis Leonides (Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer) (Pages 6, 10 & 11) (Beaver) (Dragonfly) v · d · eAlvis aircraft engines Radial engines 9ARS · Alcides · Alcides Major · Leonides · Leonides Major · Maeonides Major · Pelides · Pelides Major v · d · eLists relating to aviation General Timeline of aviation · Aircraft (manufacturers) · Aircraft engines (manufacturers) · Rotorcraft (manufacturers) · Airlines (defunct) · Airports · Civil authorities · Museums Military Air forces · Aircraft weapons · Experimental aircraft · Missiles · Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) Accidents/incidents General · Commercial (airliners) · Military Records Airspeed · Altitude · Distance · Endurance · Most-produced aircraft