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R-4 / Hoverfly Comdr. Frank A. Erickson, USCG & Dr. Igor Sikorsky, Sikorsky Helicopter HNS-1 C.G. #39040. Role Helicopter Manufacturer Sikorsky Designed by Igor Sikorsky First flight 13 January 1942 Primary users United States Air Force United States Navy United States Coast Guard Royal Air Force Produced 1942–1944 Number built 131 Developed from Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 Developed into Sikorsky R-6 The Sikorsky R-4 was a two-place helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky with a single, three-bladed main rotor and powered by a radial engine. The R-4 was the world's first large-scale mass-produced helicopter and the first helicopter to enter service with the United States Army Air Forces,[1] Navy, and Coast Guard, as well as for the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and Royal Navy. Contents 1 Development 2 Operational history 3 Variants 4 Operators 5 Aircraft on display 6 Specifications (R-4B) 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Development The VS-316, was developed from the famous experimental VS-300 helicopter, invented by Igor Sikorsky and publicly demonstrated in 1940. The VS-316 was designated the XR-4, under the United States Army Air Forces' series for "Rotorcraft". The XR-4 made its initial flight on 13 January 1942 and was accepted by the Army on 30 May 1942. The XR-4 exceeded all the previous helicopter endurance, altitude and airspeed records that had been set before it. The XR-4 completed a 761-mile (1,225 km) cross country flight from Connecticut to Wright Field, Ohio, set a service ceiling of 12,000 feet (3,700 m), 100 flight hours without a major incident, and an airspeed approaching 90 mph (140 km/h).[2] The British Admiralty having learned of the VS-300, made a ship available that had been intended to show the USN their work with autogyros and ship operations. The Empire Mersey was fitted with a landing platform. After her loss in 1942 to a U-boat, she was replaced by the SS Daghestan.[3] The British would receive two of the first eight helicopters built. On 5 January 1943, the United States Army Air Forces ordered 29 prototypes.[2] The first three prototypes were designated as the YR-4A and used for evaluation testing. The YR-4A benefited from a larger, 180 hp (130 kW) Warner Super Scarab (R-550-1) engine, compared to the 165 hp (123 kW) R-500-3 engine in the prototype, and a rotor diameter increaed by one foot (30 cm). Evaluation of the YR-4A demonstrated a need for further improvements, including moving the tailwheel further towards the rear of the tailboom, venting the exhaust to the side instead of downward, and increasing the fuel capacity by five gallons (19 liters). These and other design changes led to the designation of later prototypes as YR-4B, which were used for service testing and flight training. Operational history On 22–23 April 1944, U.S. Army Lieutenant Carter Harman of the 1st Air Commando Group conducted the first combat rescue by helicopter using a YR-4 in the China-Burma-India theater. Despite the high altitude, humidity, and capacity for only a single passenger, Harman rescued a downed liaison aircraft pilot and his three British soldier passengers; two at a time.[4] On 22–23 January 1945, another rescue by the R-4 involved several legs for refueling and navigating through passes between mountains nearly 10,000 feet (3,000 m) tall, to reach a weather station located at an elevation of 4,700 feet (1,400 m). The higher than normal altitude required a downhill run of 20 ft (6.1 m) to get airborne.[5] Royal Air Force Hoverfly I in use by Fairey Aviation in late 1945 While the R-4 was being used for rescues in Burma and China, it was also being used to ferry parts between floating Aviation Repair Units in the South Pacific. On 23 May 1944, six ships set sail with two R-4s on board each vessel. The ships had been configured as floating repair depots for damaged Army Air Forces aircraft in the South Pacific. When the helicopters were not being used to fly the parts from one location to another, they were enlisted for medical evacuation and other mercy missions.[6] In Royal Air Force service, the R-4 was called the Hoverfly.[7] The Helicopter Training School, formed January 1945, at RAF Andover, was the first British military unit to be equipped with the helicopter. Many of the RAF Hoverfly Is were transferred to the Royal Navy for training and one was used in 1945/46 by Fairey Aviation to develop rotor systems for their Gyrodyne helicopter. Variants Igor Sikorsky and Orville Wright with Sikorsky XR-4 in 1942 Sikorsky R-4B at National Museum of the United States Air Force External differences noted in photos: Some R-4s had the tail wheel located at the extreme aft end of the boom near the tail rotor while others had it positioned at the mid-point of the boom. Additionally, some had short "stub" exhaust pipes from the engine while others had a much longer one which extended vertically and then aft above the main landing gear struts. XR-4 One prototype Model VS-316A with a crew of two and dual controls, 165 hp R-500-3 engine, became XR-4C YR-4A Version with larger rotor diameter and a 180 hp R-550-1 engine; three built. YR-4B Version with detailed changes; 27 built for development testing followed by a further batch of 14, seven to US Navy as HNS-1s. R-4B Production version with 200hp R-550-3 engine; 100 built including 20 for the US Navy and 45 for the Royal Air Force. XR-4C Prototype XR-4 re-engined with 180 hp R-550-1 engine with the larger YR-4A type rotor. HNS-1 Three YR-4Bs and 22 R-4Bs transferred to the US Navy; two diverted to the United States Coast Guard. Hoverfly I UK military designation of the R-4 for the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy; 52 delivered and one later transferred to the Royal Canadian Air Force. Sikorsky S-54 An R-4B modified with an observers seat aft of the main rotor gearbox for trials. Operators  Canada Royal Canadian Air Force  United Kingdom Royal Air Force Fleet Air Arm  United States United States Army Air Forces United States Navy United States Coast Guard Aircraft on display XR-4C prototype, the Smithsonian Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center R-4B (s/n 43-46506) is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB near Dayton, Ohio. It was donated by the University of Illinois in 1967.[8] Hoverfly MK.1, KL110, the RAF Museum at Hendon in north London. A former USAAF aircraft, it arrived in Britain in February 1945. It flew with the RAF, later the Royal Navy, until 1951. It was held by the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield until it was presented to the RAF museum in 1966. Canada Aviation Museum in Ottawa, Ontario National Museum of Naval Aviation in Pensacola, Florida. Exhibit is an HNS-1 Hoverfly (Bureau Number 39047) - On indoor static display in US Coast Guard markings. Army Aviation Museum at Fort Rucker, Alabama. U.S. Army R-4B Hoverfly (Serial Number 43-46592) and R-6A Hoverfly II (Serial Number 43-45473) on indoor static display.[9] Yanks Air Museum in Chino, California has an R-4B (Serial Number 43-46534) in their restoration hangar. [10] Vought-Sikorsky XR-4C, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center RAF Museum R-4B Hoverfly, US Army Aviation Museum US Air Force Museum Specifications (R-4B) This aircraft article is missing some (or all) of its specifications. If you have a source, you can help Wikipedia by adding them. General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 1 Length: 33 ft 8 in (10.2 m) Rotor diameter: 38 ft (11.5 m) Height: 12 ft 5 in (3.8 m) Empty weight: 2,098 lb (952 kg) Loaded weight: 2,581 lb (1,170 kg) Powerplant: 1 × Warner R-550 piston, 200 hp (149 kW) Performance Maximum speed: 75 mph (120 km/h) Cruise speed: 65 mph (105 km/h) Service ceiling: 8,000 ft (2400 m) See also Related development Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 Sikorsky R-5 References Notes ^ "Fact Sheet: Sikorsky R-4." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 26 September 2010. ^ a b McGowen 2005, p. 29. ^ Cocker 2008, p. 114. ^ McGowen 2005, p. 34. ^ Williams 2005, pp. 30–31. ^ Williams 2005, p. 31. ^ Flight 1946 ^ United States Air Force Museum 1975, p. 42. ^ U.S. Army Aviation Museum Association, Inc. "Rotary Wing Collection.", 2 January 2003. Retrieved: 25 August 2008. ^ "Restoration Hangar." Yanks Air Museum. Retrieved: 18 January 2011. Bibliography Cocker, Maurice. Aircraft-Carrying Ships of the Royal Navy. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: The History Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-7524-4633-2. McGowen, Stanley S. Helicopters: An Illustrated History of Their Impact (Weapons and Warfare Series). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005. ISBN 978-1851094684. Myall, Eric and Ray Sturtivant (ed.). The Hoverfly File. Tunbridge Wells, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1998. ISBN 0-85130-262-9. United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975. Williams, Dr. James W. A History Of Army Aviation: From Its Beginnings To The War On Terror. Bloomington, IN: Iuniverse, 2005. ISBN 978-0595673964. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sikorsky R-4 Sikorsky R-4 page at the National Museum of the United States Air Force RAF Museum Sikorsky R4 Hoverfly webpage Photo gallery of Sikorsky R-4B Hoverfly I Freeman AAF contains the story of America's first Helicopter School v · d · eSikorsky Aircraft Fixed-wing aircraft S-1 · S-2 · S-3 · S-4 · S-5 · S-6 · S-7 · S-8 · S-9 · S-10 · S-11 · S-12 · S-13 · S-14 · S-15 · S-16 · S-17 · S-18 · S-19 · S-20 · S-21 · S-22 · S-23 · S-24 · S-25 · S-26 · S-27 · S-28 · S-29-A · S-30 · S-31 · S-32 · S-33 · S-34 · S-35 · S-36 · S-37 · S-38 · S-39 · S-40 · S-41 · S-42 · S-43 · VS-44 · S-45 Helicopters (Company designations) VS-300 (S-46) · S-47 · S-48 · S-49 · S-51 · S-52 · S-53 · S-54 · S-55 · S-56 · S-57 · S-58 · S-59 · S-60 · S-61 · S-61L/N · S-61R · S-62 · S-63 · S-64 · S-65 · S-66 · S-67 · S-68 · S-69 · S-70 · S-71 · S-72 · S-73 · S-74 · S-75 · S-76 · S-80 · S-92/H-92 · S-97 · S-300 · S-333 · S-434 Helicopters (Military designations) SH-3 · HH-3E/F · R-4 · H-5 · H-6 · H-18 · H-19 · H-34 · CH-37 · XH-39 · HH-52A · CH-53 · CH-53E · CH-53K · CH-54 · HH-60G · HH-60J · MH-60R/S · SH-60B/F · SH-60J/K • UH-60 · VH-60 · RAH-66 · CH-124 · CH-148 Experimental aircraft Cypher · Cypher II · Firefly · X2 · XBLR-3 v · d · eUSAAC/USAAF/USAF/Joint Service Helicopter designations 1941– Numerical sequence used by USAAC/USAAF/USAF 1941–Present; US Army 1948–1956 and 1962–present; US Navy 1962–present Main sequence Prefix R-, 1941–1948 Prefix H-, 1948–1962 H- with a mission prefix 1962–present R-1 • R-2 • R-3 • R-4 • R-5/H-5 • R-6/H-6 • R-7 • R-8 • R-9/H-9 • R-10/H-10 • R-11/H-11 • R-12/H-12 • R-13/H-13/OH-13/UH-13J • R-14 • R-15/H-15 • R-16/H-16 • H-17 • H-18 • H-19/UH-19 • H-20 • H-21/CH-21 • H-22 • H-23/OH-23 • H-24 • H-25/UH-25 • XH-26 • H-27 • H-28 • H-29 • H-30 • H-31 • H-32 • H-33 • H-34/CH-34 • H-35 • (H-36 not assigned) • H-37/CH-37 • (H-38 not assigned) • XH-39 • H-40 • H-41 • H-42 • H-43/HH-43 • (H-44 and H-45 not assigned) • CH-46/HH-46 • CH-47 • UH-48 • H-49 • QH-50 • XH-51 • HH-52 • CH-53/HH-53/MH-53 • CH-54 • TH-55 • AH-56 • TH-57 • OH-58 • XH-59 • UH-60/SH-60/HH-60 • YUH-61 • XCH-62 • YAH-63 • AH-64 • HH-65 • RAH-66 • TH-67 • MH-68 • (H-69 not assigned) • ARH-70 • VH-71 • UH-72 1962 redesignations reusing old numbers AH-1/UH-1 • SH-2/SH-2G • SH-3/CH-3/HH-3 • OH-4 • OH-5 • OH-6/MH-6/AH-6 v · d · eUSN helicopter designations pre-1962 Helicopter, Anti-submarine Bell HSL Sikorsky HSS Helicopter, Crane McDonnell HCH Helicopter, Observation Hiller HOE Gyrodyne HOG Kaman HOK Sikorsky HOS • HO2S • HO3S • HO4S • HO5S Helicopter, Trainer pre-1948 Sikorsky HNS Helicopter, Trainer 1948-1962 Hiller HTE Kaman HTK Bell HTL Helicopter, Transport 1944-1962 Boeing Vertol HRB McDonnell HRH Piasecki HRP Sikorsky HRS • HR2S • HR3S Helicopter, Utility pre-1949 Douglas HJD McDonnell HJH Piasecki HJP Sikorsky HJS Helicopter, Utility 1950-1962 Kaman HUK • HU2K Bell: HUL McCulloch HUM Piasecki HUP Sikorsky HUS • HU2S v · d · eLists relating to aviation General Timeline of aviation · Aircraft (manufacturers) · Aircraft engines (manufacturers) · Rotorcraft (manufacturers) · Airlines (defunct) · Airports · Civil authorities · Museums Military Air forces · Aircraft weapons · Experimental aircraft · Missiles · Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) Accidents/incidents General · Commercial (airliners) · Military Records Airspeed · Altitude · Distance · Endurance · Most-produced aircraft