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A Timeline of Chacoan history includes Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Aztec Ruins National Monument, Twin Angels Pueblo, Casamero, Kin Nizhoni, Pierre's Site, and Halfway House. Contents 1 Paleo-Indian Period 2 Archaic Period 3 4th century CE 4 5th century 5 6th century 6 7th century 7 8th century 8 9th century 9 10th century 10 11th century 11 12th century 12 13th century 13 14th century 14 15th century 15 16th century 16 17th century 17 18th century 18 19th century 19 20th century 20 References Paleo-Indian Period 11000 BC First foragers? Archaic Period 6000 BC-800 BC Hunter-gatherers 4th century CE This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. 5th century 490 Basketmaker farming begins 6th century 500 Turquoise beads and pendants appear; offerings in great kivas (sites 29SJ423, Shabik' eshchee Village) 7th century 600-800 La Plata Black-on-White ceramic 700 Population of Chaco Canyon between 100-200 people [1] 8th century This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. 9th century 800-900 Builders use piñon, juniper, and cottonwood trees that grew close by [1] 850-925 Large construction projects. (Plog) 875-1040 Red Mesa Black-on-White ceramics 10th century 900-1150 Large buildings, mounds, roadways, great kivas, and tri-walled structures are built throughout the San Juan Basin.[2] 900-1125 Construction of Penasco Blanco 900 Emergence of the Chaco Anasazi [3] 900 Chetro Ketl pueblo begun 900-1025 Chaco Wash in erosional cycle and cut a paleo-channel.[4] 925-1130 Stable environmental conditions favorable to dry farming throughout the Colorado Plateau. Human populations also stable.[5] 950 Keet Seel, second largest cliff dwelling. is inhabited 950 Nonlocal ponderosa is the dominant beam timber; spruce and fir increase 11th century 960-1020 Unpredictable rainfall. Little building at Pueblo Bonito [1] 1000 Chaco phenomenon. 1000-1075 Great House construction, and roads expanded (Plog). The first usage of chocolate further than central Mexico was first used in ceramic cylinders for rituals.[6] 1000-1140 Escavada Black-on-White ceramics 1025-1090 Depositional period during which time the paleo-channel was filling. There is some historical, anecdotal evidence that the inhabitants of Chaco Canyon may have constructed a dam at the west end of the canyon.[4] 1030 Chacoans seek trees at higher altitudes [1] 1040 Increased rainfall [1] 1040-1050 Building resumes at Old Bonito. Pueblo Bonito construction stage II [1] 1050-1070 Pueblo Bonito becomes more complex. Pueblo Bonito construction stage III [1] 1050 Imports of copper bells, Macaws, and shells (origin unknown) 1054 ~July 4 - Cliff painting near Penasco Blanco consisting of three symbols: a large star, a crescent moon, and a handprint, may portray the sighting of SN 1054, the Crab Nebula supernova.[7] 1064, 1066 Sunset Crater volcanic eruptions; volcanic debris blankets Jemez Mountains and Bandelier area. 1080-1100 Great North Road construction. (Lekson 1999) 1080 Salmon Ruin established. (Lekson 1999) 1080 Construction of Pueblo Alto begins. 1090 Drought 12th century 1075-1123 Pueblo Bonito constructed at Chaco. ? Five astronomical observatories are built 1100 Peak of Chaco culture. 1100-1104 Tree felling at Pueblo del Arroyo 1106-1125 Aztec Ruins built. 1130 Pueblo Bonito is four stories tall and contains 800 rooms [8] 1130-1180 Fifty-year drought in the Southwest. Rain and snow cease to fall. Alluvial groundwater declines, floodplain erosion occurs. Dry-farming zone reduced, crop production potential decreased. Severe arroyo cutting and depression of alluvial groundwater. Severe environmental stress.[5] 1140–1150 Collapse of the Ancestral Puebloan culture at Chaco Canyon. 1150 Great Houses empty 1180 Sunset Crater erupts for the second time. 13th century This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. 14th century This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. 15th century This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. 16th century 1539 Marcos de Niza erroneously describes the pueblo of Háwikuh as the Seven Cities of Gold. 17th century 1680-1692 The Pueblo Revolt of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonists in the New Spain province. 1774 Don Bernardo de Miera y Pacheco identifies the Chaco Canyon area as "Chaca" on a map. The term, a Spanish translation of a Navajo word, is thought to be the origin for "Chacra Mesa" and "Chaco". 18th century This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. 19th century 1844 Josiah Gregg refers to the Chaco pueblos in his book Commerce of the Prairies, making its first appearance in popular culture. 1849 Lt. James H. Simpson leads the Washington Expedition, a military reconnaissance team which surveys Navajo lands and records cultural sites in Chaco Canyon. Illustrations created by the Kern brothers are included in a government report. 1877 Artist and photographer William Henry Jackson participates in the Hayden Survey of the Western United States, producing maps of Chaco Canyon, but no photographs due to technical problems. 1888 Richard Wetherill and Charlie Mason find the Cliff Palace, Spruce Tree House and Square Tower House. Chaco Canyon is surveyed and photographed by Victor and Cosmos Mindeleff of the Bureau of American Ethnology 1896 Richard Wetherill begins excavating Chaco Canyon 1896-1899 George H. Pepper from the American Museum of Natural History leads the Hyde Exploring Expedition in excavating Pueblo Bonito 20th century 1901 General Land Office special agent S. J. Holsinger recommends creating a national park to preserve archaeological sites in Chaco Canyon 1907 Chaco Canyon National Monument is established. 1928-1929 American astronomer and University of Arizona professor A. E. Douglass participates in a National Geographic Society research project exploring Chaco Canyon. Using his newly invented technique of dendrochronology, Douglass dates Chetro Ketl and dozens of Chacoan sites Expedition under Neil Merton Judd to collect dendrochronological specimens to date habitation of Chaco Canyon 1937 A Civilian Conservation Corps of Navajo stonemasons repairs Chacoan buildings in Chaco Canyon. A previous group built soil conservation devices, planted trees, and improved roads and trails. 1941 Heavy rains cause Threatening Rock to fall, destroying ~60 rooms at Pueblo Bonito. 1960 Floors excavated at Una Vida 1971-1982 The Chaco Project, conducted by the National Park Service and the University of New Mexico, surveys and excavates Chaco Canyon 1976-1978 Fourteen rooms at Pueblo Alto excavated by the Chaco Project 1980 Chaco Canyon National Monument is re-named Chaco Culture National Historical Park with 13,000 acres (53 km²) added. The Chaco Culture Archaeological Protection Site program is created to protect Chacoan sites. 1982 NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) detects over 200 miles of a prehistoric (AD 900 or 1000) road system in Chaco Canyon, as well as walls, buildings, and agricultural fields. 1983 Dean and Warren estimate 200,000 trees were used to build great houses. 1987 Chaco Culture National Historical Park is designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 2001 Two-thirds of large roof timbers traced to Chuska Mountains and one-third to San Mateo Mountains.[9] References ^ a b c d e f g Fagan, Brian M. (2005). Chaco Canyon. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195170431 ^ Kohler, Timothy A. Sebastian, Lynne. (July 1996). "Population aggregation in the prehistoric North American Southwest." American Antiquity v61.n3 : pp597(6). ^ The Chaco World Great House Database ^ a b Durand, Stephen R. (Jan 2004). "Relation of "Bonito" Paleo-channels and Base-level Variations to Anasazi Occupation, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico." American Antiquity 69.1: 191(1). ^ a b Jorgensen, Joseph G. (Winter 2005). "Archaeological sociology in America's Southwest". Journal of the Southwest 47.4: 637(28). ^ "Chocolate Drink Used In Rituals In New Mexico 1,000 Years Ago.". ScienceDaily. 5 February 2009. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090203173331.htm. Retrieved 6 February 2009.  ^ Greening, Dan. "1054 Supernova Petrograph". http://www.astronomy.pomona.edu/archeo/outside/chaco/nebula.html. Retrieved 2009-02-06.  ^ Neitzel, 2003 ^ Diamond, 2001