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The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (July 2011) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2011) See also: Radical nationalism in Russia Russian nationalism is a term referring to a Russian form of nationalism. Russian nationalism has a long history dating from the days of Muscovy to Russian Empire, and continued in some form in the Soviet Union. It is closely related to Pan-Slavism. There are a number of individuals and organizations in Russia consisting of both moderate and radical nationalists in Russia today. Contents 1 Pre-imperial Russian nationalism 2 Imperial Russian nationalism 3 Nationalism in the Soviet Union 4 Modern Russian Nationalism 5 See also 6 References Pre-imperial Russian nationalism Coat of arms of Ivan III, the Byzantine Double-headed eagle Since the time of Rus', Russian leaders longed to establish their nation's position as one of the major nations of Europe. In 1469 Grand Prince Ivan III the Great of Russia married Sophia Palaiologina, a niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI. Upon this, Ivan adopted the concept of Moscow as the Third Rome, the heir to Rome and Constantinople (the 'Second Rome') as capitals of the true Christian faith. Since then, Russia uses the Byzantine Double-headed eagle as its coat of arms. His grandson Ivan IV adopted the more pretentious tittle of Tsar (from Caesar), Russian equal to English 'Emperor'. He was styled "Tsar of All the Russias" (Царь всея Руси), thus nominally claiming the whole territory of medieval Kievan Rus. The key ideology of the time was that Moscow Russia, as the only self-governed part of what once was united Rus, and the only state ruled by monarchs of Rurikid dynasty, is the only legitimate successor to Kievan Rus. In early 17th century Russia was conquered and occupied by Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a period known as the Time of Troubles. Russian national uprising, led by prince Dmitry Pozharsky, drove Poles away. Nevertheless, the Time of Troubles heavily affected Russian society for the next century, making both rulers and common people conservative and hostile to foreign influence and non-Orthodox beliefs. The new Romanov dynasty continued styling themselves "Tsars of All the Russias", and eventually, by conquest or union, they actually gathered most of the territory of Kievan Rus. Imperial Russian nationalism Nineteenth century Romantic nationalism inspired folk revival in Russian art, such as by Victor Vasnetsov Peter I's reforms brought westernisation to Russia, and throughout the whole 18th century any Russian national sentiment, such as national costume, hairstyle, was unpopular and even discouraged in the Russian nobility class. For example, wearing a beard under Peter I was a subject to fine. The nobility preferred to speak French rather than Russian even in private until the mid-19th century. The 19th century saw the revival in Russian nationalism. A formula of Russian motto, saying "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality" was coined by Count Sergey Uvarov and adopted by Emperor Nicholas I as official doctrine. Three components of Uvarov's triad were: Orthodoxy - Orthodox Christianity and protection of Russian Orthodox Church. Autocracy - unconditional loyalty to House of Romanov in return for paternalist protection for all social estates. Nationality (Narodnost, has been also translated as national spirit,)[1] - recognition of the state-founding role on the Russian nationality. (Compare to Volkstum in Germany). Slavophilia movement became popular in the 19th-century Russia. Slavophiles were determined to protect what they believed were unique Russian traditions and culture and opposed influences of Western Europe on Russia. Aleksey Khomyakov, Ivan Kireevsky and Konstantin Aksakov created the basis of the moevement. Closely related to Slavophilia was notable folk revival in Russian art[2]. Many works appeared concerning Russian history, mythology and fairy tales. Operas by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Borodin, as well as paintings by Victor Vasnetsov, Ivan Bilibin, Ilya Repin, and poems by Nikolay Nekrasov, Aleksey K. Tolstoy, among others, are considered masterpieces of Russian romantic nationalism[3]. According to one of best Russian poets of 19th century Tutchev: Moscow and Peter's grad, the city of Constantine, these are the capitals of Russian kingdom. But where is their limit? And where are their frontiers to the north, the east, the south and the setting sun? The Fate will reveal this to future generations. Seven inland seas and seven great rivers from the Nile to the Neva, from the Elbe to China, from the Volga to the Euphrates, from Ganges to the Danube. That's the Russian Kingdom, and let it be forever, just as the Spirit foretold and Daniel prophesied. Pan-Slavism, an idea of unity and friendship of all Slavic and Orthodox Christian nations, gained popularity in the mid to late 19th century. Among its major ideologists were Nikolai Danilevsky, Pan-Slavism was fueled and, in turn, was the fuel, in Russia's numerous wars against Ottoman Empire with the goal to liberate Orthodox nations, such as Bulgars, Serbs, and Greeks, from Muslim rule. The final goal was Constantinople, as the Russian Empire still considered itself the "Third Rome" and saw its duty in freeing the "Second Rome". Pan-Slavism had a key role in Russia's entry into World War I as well, since it is the 1914 invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary that triggered Russia's response. As the 20th century was approaching, Russia was attempting to catch up to the Industrial Revolution. The already vast gap of wealth between the rich elite and the mass poor had grown even more. This caused patriotic enthusiasm to decline. Revolutionary activities intensified, which culminated in the 1905 Russian Revolution. Two results of Russian nationalism arose in early 20th century: chauvinism and anti-semitism. Lynching of the Jews - pogroms - became quite regular under Nicholas II. They were inspired by blood libels and carried out by marginal groups like The Black Hundred and Union of the Russian People. Their motto was 'Russia for Russians'. Those parties remained monarchist and anti-semitic; they were organized by wealthy and powerful aristocrats such as Vladimir Purishkevich and Nikolai Yevgenyevich Markov and enjoyed a lack of oversight by the Imperial authorities. During World War I, the Empire made an attempt to revive the national spirit and enthusiasm. However, as the war effort failed on the eastern front, the popularity of Nicholas II declined to the level when he was overthrown by the Russian Revolution. In the subsequent civil war, the loosely allied monarchist and anti-communist White Army continued to carry the banner of Russian nationalism and (some groups of them) anti-semitism, until they were eliminated by the communist revolutionaries. Nationalism in the Soviet Union A Soviet WW II poster making parallels with medieval Russian victory in the Battle of the Ice The newborn communist republic under Vladimir Lenin proclaimed internationalism as its official ideology[4]. Russian nationalism was officially discouraged, as were any remnants of Imperial patriotism, such as wearing military awards received before Civil War. Politics of nativization was installed instead, that propagated culture and languages of Soviet ethnic minorities[5]. Still, the 1930s inspired a wave of romantic nationalist art, most notably, historical epic films by Sergei Eizenshtein, such as Alexander Nevsky. Moreover, the creation of the international Communist empire under control of the Soviet Union was perceived by many as accomplishment of Russian nationalistic dreams[6]. Poet Pavel Kogan described his feelings of the Soviet patriotism just before the World War II: I am a patriot. I love Russian air and Russian soil. But we will reach the Ganges River, and we will die in fights, to make our Motherland shine from Japan to England According to Nikolai Berdyaev[7]: The Russian people did not achieve their ancient dream of Moscow, the Third Rome. The ecclesiastical schism of the seventeenth century revealed that the muscovite tsardom is not the third Rome. The messianic idea of the Russian people assumed either an apocalyptic form or a revolutionary; and then there occurred an amazing event in the destiny of the Russian people. Instead of the Third Rome in Russia, the Third International was achieved, and many of the features of the Third Rome pass over to the Third International. The Third International is also a holy empire, and it also is founded on an orthodox faith. The Third International is not international, but a Russian national idea. Another aspect was revanchism. In World War I, Russia had lost much of its Baltic territory to the new nations of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, the latter also annexed significant portions of Belarussian and Ukrainian territory. During World War II, the USSR reacquired most of its former territory. The Soviet Union's war against Nazi Germany became known as the Great Patriotic War, hearkening back to the previous use of the term in the Napoleonic Wars. The Soviet state called for Soviet citizens to defend the 'Motherland', a matrilineal term used to describe Russia in the past[citation needed]. Stalin's quote "Not a step back!" was coined as Russia's resistance slogan[citation needed]. At the same time, Nazi Germany organized collaborationist military units like Vlasov's army and Krasnov's cossacks. They revived nationalist and anti-semitic sentiments of pre-revolution nationalists. They used Imperial banner and insignia and condemned communism as a Jewish conspiracy. In 1944, the Soviet Union abandoned its communist anthem, The International, and adopted a new national anthem which citizens of the Soviet Union could identify with. Modern Russian Nationalism See also: Racism in Russia With the fall of Soviet Union, Russian Orthodox Church restored much of its pre-revolution influence on the society. The church became a common source of Russian pride and nationalism. Yet the official ideology did not turn completely to Imperial monarchist sentiment, but rather tried to maintain a balance between Soviet and Imperial ideals. The ruling United Russia party insists its view of Russia is a multi-national republic and calls national tolerance one of its key platforms. In modern Russian media, the term "nationalist" is often used with negative connotation to describe far-right nationalists and neo-fascists, rather than in the word's original meaning. Nevertheless, many nationalist movements, both radical and moderate, arose in modern Russia. One of the oldest and most popular is Vladimir Zhirinovsky's right-wing populist party LDPR, which had been a member of the State Duma since its very creation in 1993. Rodina was a popular moderate left-wing nationalist party under Dmitry Rogozin, which eventually abandoned nationalist ideology and merged with the larger socialist party Fair Russia. Of the more radical, ultranationalist movements, the most notorious is Russian National Unity, a neo-Nazi group infamous for organizing paramilitary brigades of its younger members. Others include: neo-monarchist Pamyat, and Movement Against Illegal Immigration. This movements revived the 'Russia for Russians' slogan, and usually attract young skinheads. These parties organize the annual rally called Russian March. A rise of radical nationalism in modern Russia is considered to be a result of several factors: the poverty and humiliation after the fall of Soviet Union; a response to the activity of ethnic criminal[citation needed] groups from the South Caucasus and Central Asia and ongoing illegal immigration from this regions; a reaction on Soviet and modern Russian enforced national tolerance. In modern Russia, the term "nationalist" bears negative connotation and is often used to describe far-right nationalists and neo-fascists, rather than in the word's original meaning. Some parties like United Russia use the word as a pejorative and synonymous to "chauvinist" regarding their right-wing opponents. The financial crisis starting 2008-2009 saw anti-immigration sentiment become more accepted in Russia, due to increased concern that (particularly illegal) immigrants would compete with the domestic workforce over jobs - or, if not getting jobs, turn to crime.[8][9] Outside Russia, with the fall of Soviet ideology of enforced internationalism, national clashes amongst the ethnic groups within its former borders erupted. Some post-Soviet states rejected anything Russian as a 'symbol of occupation', and embraced russophobia (particularly in Baltic states and Georgia)[10]. At the same time, Russians and several other national minorities did not accept the split of their country and demanded re-union with Russia. These conflicting ideologies led to wars in Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Transnistria. Russian minorities in Baltic states created pro-Russian activist groups, as did Russian-speaking majority of Crimea, Ukraine. In December, 2010 a wide spread of Russian nationalism became a major issue in the country's media following the series of rioting that came after the death of a Russian footbal fan stabbed by migrants from the North Caucasus. See also Black Hundred Mladorossi Russia for Russians Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Nationalism in Russia References ^ Hutchings, Stephen C. (2004). Russian Literary Culture in the Camera Age: The Word as Image. Routledge. p. 86.  ^ [1] Edward C. Thaden. The Beginnings of Romantic Nationalism in Russia. American Slavic and East European Review, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Dec., 1954), pp. 500-521. Published by: The American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies ^ O. I. Senkovskii and Romantic Empire ^ 2001: Perry Anderson, Professor of History and Sociology, UCLA; Editor, New Left Review: Internationalism: Metamorphoses of a Meaning. See also the interview with Anderson. ^ Timo Vihavainen: Nationalism and Internationalism. How did the Bolsheviks Cope with National Sentiments? in [Chulos & Piirainen 2000. ^ Benedikt Sarnov,Our Soviet Newspeak: A Short Encyclopedia of Real Socialism., pages 446-447. Moscow: 2002, ISBN 5-85646-059-6 (Наш советский новояз. Маленькая энциклопедия реального социализма.) ^ Quoted from book by Benedikt Sarnov,Our Soviet Newspeak: A Short Encyclopedia of Real Socialism., pages 446-447. Moscow: 2002, ISBN 5-85646-059-6 (Наш советский новояз. Маленькая энциклопедия реального социализма.) ^ Berg-Nordlie, Mikkel and Aadne Aasland: Migration and National Identity in Russia (NIBR International Blog 07.02.2011) ^ Berg-Nordlie, Mikkel; Aasland, Aadne & Olga Tkach: Compatriots or Competitors? A Glance at Rossiyskaya Gazeta's Immigration Debate 2004-2009, in Sociālo Zinātņu Vēstnesis 2/2010 (pp. 7-26) ^ Neil Melvin Russians Beyond Russia: The Politics of National Identity. London Royal Inst. of Internat. Affairs 1995 v · d · eRussian nationalism Moderate: People's Union | Great Russia | Cathedral of the Russian people | ROD | NAROD | PPRC «Rus» | NPR | ONS | Russian Nationwide Union | Congress of Russian Communities Radical: Pamyat | NNP | NBP | NBF | National Sovereignty Party of Russia | RNE | DPNI | Slavic Union | National Union | NSO | Nordic Brotherhood | NSPR | Freedom Party | NS/WP Russian March: 2005 • 2006 • 2007 • 2008 • 2009 • 2010 v · d · eEthnic nationalism Forms of nationalism based primarily on ethnicity are listed below. This does not imply that all nationalists with a given ethnicity subscribe to that form of ethnic nationalism. Acholi  · African  · Afrikaner  · Albanian · American Indian  · Andalusian  · Arab  · Armenian  · Assamese  · Assyrian  · Asturian  · Azerbaijani  · Balkar and Karachay  · Baloch  · Basque  · Bengali  · Bengali Hindu  · Berber  · Black  · Bodo  · Breton  · Canarian  · Castilian  · Catalan  · Chicano  · Chinese  · Circassian  · Cornish  · Corsican  · Croatian  · Dalit  · Egyptian  · English  · Filipino  · Flemish  · Galician  · German  · Greek  · Hindu  · Icelandic  · Indian  · Indian Muslim  · Iranian  · Iraqi  · Irish  · Japanese  · Jewish  · Kashmiri  · Korean  · Kurdish  · Lebanese  · Macedonian  · Malay  · Maori  · Marathi  · Naga  · Padanian  · Pakistani  · Palestinian  · Quebecois  · Russian  · Scottish  · Seraiki  · Serb  · Sikh  · Sindhi  · Sinhalese Buddhist  · Slav  · Spanish  · Sri Lankan Tamil  · Syrian  · Taiwanese  · Tamil  · Tripuri  · Turkish  · Ukrainian  · Ulster  · Valencian  · Venetian  · Walloon  · Welsh  · White  · Zionist