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Gordes Gordes Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Department Vaucluse Arrondissement Apt Canton Gordes Mayor Maurice Chabert (1995–2008) Statistics Elevation 111–635 m (364–2,083 ft) (avg. 373 m/1,224 ft) Land area1 48.04 km2 (18.55 sq mi) Population2 2,130  (2007)  - Density 44 /km2 (110 /sq mi) INSEE/Postal code 84050/ 84220 1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Coordinates: 43°54′43″N 5°12′03″E / 43.91194°N 5.20083°E / 43.91194; 5.20083 Gordes is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. The residents are known as Gordiens. The nearest big city is Avignon, smaller are Cavaillon, L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue and Apt. Contents 1 Geography 1.1 Access 1.2 Neighbouring communes 1.3 Topography 1.4 Climate 2 History 2.1 Early history 2.2 Middle Ages and Renaissance 2.3 Post XVIIIth century 2.4 After World War II 2.5 Armory 2.6 Other historical language names 3 Administration 4 Land use 5 Architecture 6 Economy 6.1 Agriculture 6.2 Tourism 7 Education 8 Sport 9 Culture 10 Health 11 Everyday life 12 Personalities 13 References 14 See also 15 External links Geography The territory of Gordes occupies some of "Les Monts de Vaucluse", a group of mountains and hills, part in the valley of the Calavon (a local river) also called the "Luberon Valley". Access the main access to the village of Gordes is the departmental road D2 then the departmental road D15, coming from Cavaillon. It is from this last road, below the Bel-Air rock, that you can observe the most famous and photographed point of view of the village. Gordes is located 38 kilometres est from Avignon and its TGV station, 75 kilometres from the Marseille Provence international airport and 87 kilometres from Marseille. The closest "gares SNCF" (normal train station) are located in L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue and Cavaillon. Neighbouring communes Neighbouring villages are : Venasque and Murs to the north, Joucas and Roussillon to the east, Goult, Saint-Pantaléon, Beaumettes and Oppède to the south and Cabrières-d'Avignon and Saumane-de-Vaucluse to the west. Topography Located between two geographic area, Gordes is one of the biggest communes of the area with 4 804 hectares. The north is made by the south of the monts de Vaucluse. It is in this area that you will find, with 635 meters, the highest point of the commune, next to « la Pouraque » and « les Trois Termes ». The south of the commune is made by valley of the Calavon also called the "Luberon Valley" and few hills of the area. it is at south that you will find the lowest hight of the commune, at 111 meters, in the area called « plan de l'Alba ». the village itself is located on the center of the commune, on a giant calcareous rock from the monts de Vaucluse, dominating the valley. Climate Gordes has a Mediterranean climate characterised by relatively dry summers and cool, damp winters. The city is often subject to windy weather; the strongest wind is the mistral. In summer, high temperature associated with a reduced amount of rain makes a drought almost one or two month a year according to the "Gaussen index" (temperatures in Celsius degrees twice higher than rains in millimeters)[1]. Panoramic view on the village of Gordes. History The name "Gordes" derives from the Celtic word "Vordense". Vordense was pronounced Gordenses, then Gordae/Gordone, and finally Gòrda then translated into French "Gordes".[2] Early history Occupation by the Roman empire.[3] The view from north of the castle is showing the ancient and the Renaissance parts. Middle Ages and Renaissance In 1031, a castle was built and the Latin word "castrum" was added to what thus became "Castrum Gordone". The castle was re-enforced in 1123.[4] In 1148 the Sénanque Abbey was established under the patronage of Alfant, Bishop of Cavaillon, and Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona, Count of Provence, by Cistercian monks who came from Mazan Abbey in the Ardèche. In the eighth century, a Benedictine abbey known as Saint-Chaffret was built on the site of an ancient cella (roman temple) destroyed during the Arab invasions [5]. After the death of King René of Provence, the territory of Provence was added in 1481 to the French kingdom as a "province royale française" (French royal province). Post XVIIIth century During World War II , Gordes was an active resistance village and was later awarded a medal, the Croix de guerre 1939-1945. The 21 of august 1944, almost a week after the beginning of the Operation Dragoon on the Provençal coast, a german patrol is attacked by the resistance. The day after, the 22 of august, the village is subject to violent reprisals. The german have forced the inhabitants to enter their home, shooting those we are late or that are not cooperating, and start to shoot from the rock on the other side with a canon and will destroy a dozen houses. On the other side of the village, the rest of the troops did put fire on chariot, wood pieces and houses, blocking potential followers. More than twenty houses had finally been destroyed. The resistance, trying to catch them, will destroy an other part of the village, including the notarial house with all the archive. All these destructions were worth in the municipality the sad privilege to appear among three " stricken cities " of the Vaucluse department. At the end, thirteen persons were killed or executed in Gordes during the Second World War, twenty inhabitants fell under the enemy bullets and five of them were taken out of the country (in extermination camps). After World War II After a period of reconstruction, the village starts to attract artists like Marc Chagall or Jean Deyrolle who discover the village in 1947 and will drag there many of its artist friends like Serge Poliakoff, Vasarely, Dewasne, etc. Armory The primary ones are reported in 1696 in the Armorial Général de France and coming from the Gordes-Simiane family. "d'or semé alterné de tours et de fleurs de lys d'azur" "de gueules à une gourde d'or" "Mantelé d'or à deux gourdes de gueules, et de gueules à une gourde d'or" Other historical language names Occitan: Gòrda in classical norm of provencal, Gordo in Mistralian norm Administration The "Hotel Simiane", historical building with the new town office. The commune of Gordes has numerous infrastructures of public utility like the "gendarmerie", the fire brigade, the post office, a taxe office, a library, etf. Land use Type of ground occupation Percentage Size (in hectares) Urban zones 9,19% 451,34 Agricultural zones 34,43% 1 690,74 Natural Zones 56,38% 2 768,14 Total 100% 4 910,22 Architecture Located in the middle of the village, the castle, which was partially rebuilt in Renaissance style in 1525, is a major tourist attraction. In the immediate vicinity of Gordes is the Romanesque Sénanque Abbey (a Cistercian abbey) and the "village of bories", which consists entirely of "bories" (also spelled "boris", borris" and "borries"), ovoid ancient houses made only of stone. All the new buildings in Gordes are made of stone and use terracotta roof tiles. No fences are allowed, only stone walls. All electrical and telephone cables have been put underground, except for some locations on the border of the comune not made already. Some streets inside the village are paved with stones and called "calade". the Sénanque Abbey. The village des Bories. The monument in memory of the death and the castle. One of the calade inside the village. Economy Agriculture Vignard and olive trees with the roofs of Gordes at the back As many villages in the Vaucluse department, the agricultural part in the local economy is important. If historically almond trees were the more implanted in the area and even if they are still present, nowadays, olive tree have largely replaced them, with an important production of olive oil. You can also find vineyards, with the production of table grapes or wine in AOC Ventoux[6]. Tourism Many paying sights to see, hotels[7], bed and breakfast, seasonal rentals, restaurants[8], etc. even direct sell for the local agricultural producers, the tourism has the major part in the local economy of Gordes. The main sights on the commune are the village it self, the castle, the Saint-Firmain Palace cellars, the Sénanque Abbey and the Village des Bories.[9] On the surrounding, you can find many other tourist locations like Fontaine-de-Vaucluse, Roussillon or L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, the Luberon area, Avignon or the Mont Ventoux. Education You can find on the commune Primary School, Nursery School and Day Care[10]. The closest university is in Avignon, but the one of Aix-en-Provence and Marseille is also used by the local. Sport The commune is equipped with various sport equipment like 2 football/soccer fields, walking and cycling trail, pétanque spaces, etc. Culture The village of Gordes is having few art's gallery and festivals. The biggest festival of Gordes is a music festival, but you also have a wine festival, etc.[11] Health You find in the village doctors, a pharmacy, a dentist and even an hospital but exclusively used for old people[10]. Everyday life Gordes. Once a week, on Tuesday morning, is market day. Merchants from the area set up booths and sell their wares: food, clothing, instruments, Provençale dishes, decorations, handicrafts. The village has two bakeries and a variety of shops. Personalities Gordes is also known for artists who have lived or worked there: (André Lhote, Marc Chagall, Philippe Ragueneau, Victor Vasarely, Victor Spahn, Walter Salles, Willy Ronis, etc.) and politicians (including François Mitterrand). References INSEE ^ (French) Atlas du parc du Luberon ^ GORDES notes d'histoire by Jean-Louis Morand page 9. ^ GORDES notes d'histoire by Jean-Louis Morand page 17 to 24 / "L'époque romaine". ^ GORDES notes d'histoire by Jean-Louis Morand page 249 to 253 "Le château de Gordes" then page 205 to 216 / "Généalogie des familles". ^ GORDES notes d'histoire by Jean-Louis Morand page 39 to 53 "Histoire de Saint Chaffret" ^ INAO, April 2007 ^ ^ ^ ^ a b ^ See also Communes of the Vaucluse department Victor Vasarely External links Gordes Tourism Office Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Gordes v · d · eCommunes of the Vaucluse department Althen-des-Paluds · Ansouis · Apt · Aubignan · Aurel · Auribeau · Avignon · Le Barroux · La Bastide-des-Jourdans · La Bastidonne · Le Beaucet · Beaumes-de-Venise · Beaumettes · Beaumont-de-Pertuis · Beaumont-du-Ventoux · Bédarrides · Bédoin · Blauvac · Bollène · Bonnieux · Brantes · Buisson · Buoux · Cabrières-d'Aigues · Cabrières-d'Avignon · Cadenet · Caderousse · Cairanne · Camaret-sur-Aigues · Caromb · Carpentras · Caseneuve · Castellet · Caumont-sur-Durance · Cavaillon · Châteauneuf-de-Gadagne · Châteauneuf-du-Pape · Cheval-Blanc · Courthézon · Crestet · Crillon-le-Brave · Cucuron · Entraigues-sur-la-Sorgue · Entrechaux · Faucon · Flassan · Fontaine-de-Vaucluse · Gargas · Gignac · Gigondas · Gordes · Goult · Grambois · Grillon · L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue · Jonquerettes · Jonquières · Joucas · Lacoste · Lafare · Lagarde-d'Apt · Lagarde-Paréol · Lagnes · Lamotte-du-Rhône · Lapalud · Lauris · Lioux · Loriol-du-Comtat · Lourmarin · Malaucène · Malemort-du-Comtat · Maubec · Mazan · Ménerbes · Mérindol · Méthamis · Mirabeau · Modène · Mondragon · Monieux · Monteux · Morières-lès-Avignon · Mormoiron · Mornas · La Motte-d'Aigues · Murs · Oppède · Orange · Pernes-les-Fontaines · Pertuis · Peypin-d'Aigues · Piolenc · Le Pontet · Puget · Puyméras · Puyvert · Rasteau · Richerenches · Roaix · Robion · La Roque-Alric · La Roque-sur-Pernes · Roussillon · Rustrel · Sablet · Saignon · Saint-Christol · Saint-Didier · Sainte-Cécile-les-Vignes · Saint-Hippolyte-le-Graveyron · Saint-Léger-du-Ventoux · Saint-Marcellin-lès-Vaison · Saint-Martin-de-Castillon · Saint-Martin-de-la-Brasque · Saint-Pantaléon · Saint-Pierre-de-Vassols · Saint-Romain-en-Viennois · Saint-Roman-de-Malegarde · Saint-Saturnin-lès-Apt · Saint-Saturnin-lès-Avignon · Saint-Trinit · Sannes · Sarrians · Sault · Saumane-de-Vaucluse · Savoillan · Séguret · Sérignan-du-Comtat · Sivergues · Sorgues · Suzette · Taillades · Le Thor · La Tour-d'Aigues · Travaillan · Uchaux · Vacqueyras · Vaison-la-Romaine · Valréas · Vaugines · Vedène · Velleron · Venasque · Viens · Villars · Villedieu · Villelaure · Villes-sur-Auzon · Violès · Visan · Vitrolles-en-Lubéron