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Andreas von Auersperg, Lord of Schönberg und Seisenberg (Slovene: Andrej Turjaški; Croat and Bosnian: Andrija Auersperg) (9 April 1556 - 5 September 1593[1]) was a Carniolan noble and leader of the defending forces at the Battle of Sisak in 1593. Life and Career Andreas von Auersperg was born in Carniolan Seisenberg into one of the leading Protestant Austrian families in the Duchy of Carniola as the youngest son of Wolfgang-Engelbert von Auersperg, Lord of Schönberg, Seisenberg and Flödnig, and Anna Maria von Lamberg. After his parents' early demise the governor of Carniola, Baron Weikhard von Auersperg (1533–1581), became the guardian of the one-year-old boy. In 1569 the 13-year-old registered at the University of Tübingen[2], where the Collegiate Church, along with the rest of the city, was one of the first to have converted to Martin Luther's teaching, but also, in 1573 and 1574, studied at the renowned universities of Padua and Bologna. Andreas became a soldier accompanying Archduke Matthew on his campaign in the in die Netherlands 1577–1578, fighting as a captain on the Croatian-Turkish border in 1578 and 1579 under Hans Ferenberger von Auer and Christoph von Auersperg. 1583 he rose to the rank of colonel and was appointed commander-in-chief ("Feldobrist") of the Croat and Dalmatian frontier lands in Karlstadt in 1589. On June 22, 1593, the day of Saint Acacius[disambiguation needed], the leader of the ten thousand martyrs, a battle occurred near the fortress of Sisak in present day Croatia where the Sava and Kupa rivers meet. It was the last fortress the Turks needed to conquer in order to expand northward into central Europe virtually unopposed. Sources report[3] that the Turkish Army attacking the fortress was 38,000 strong, commanded by the Bosnian Beylerbey (Governor-General), Hasan Pasha (who was born as "Niko Predojević“). The Carniolan army under the command of the Ban of Croatia, Tamás Erdődy, which was defending the fort counted only 4,000 to 5,000 men led by Andreas von Auersperg and Ruprecht von Eggenberg and reinforced by 1,240 Croatian horsemen and 500 Silesian mounted riflemen. Hasan Predojević attacked with his main force but was repelled by the heavy fire of the defending army. The Turks then retreated to the bridge they had just crossed, but Auersperg sent the Arquebusars to capture the bridge. The Turks were then forced to swim to the other side of the river. About 8,000 Turks died during the retreat, including Hasan Pasha, who drowned in the river. The remaining Turks (who were guarding the camp) set their gunpowder on fire and fled. Thus, Auersperg/Turjaški won the Battle of Sisak and saved central Europe from imminent Turkish invasion, whereupon Pope Clement VIII sent the Protestant, who was nicknamed the "Carniolan Achilles" or even the "Christian Achill(es)" and called "the Terror of the Turks“, a handwritten letter of congratulation. Andreas von Auersperg died unmarried in Karlovac three months later. References ^ Not 1594, as frequently stated, cf. Neue Deutsche Biographie. Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen. , ed. Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, April 2010. ^ Die Matrikeln der Universität Tübingen: 1477-1600, ed. Württembergische Kommission für Landesgeschichte. Stuttgart, Kohlhammer, 1906 ff. vol. 1, p. 490, Miha Preinfalk, Auerspergi: po sledeh mogočnega tura, Thesaurus memoriae: Dissertationes, vol. 4, Ljubljana, Zgodovinski inštitut Milka Kosa ZRC SAZU, 2005, ISBN 961-6500-79-1, p. 80: ‘Andreas Auersperg dominus in Schönberg baro’ ^ Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte des Osmanischen Reiches. Vol. 4: Vom Regierungsantritte Murad des Dritten bis zur zweyten Entthronung Mustafa des Ersten 1574 - 1623, Budapest: C. A. Hartleben, 1829, p. 218 and footnote with reference to the greatly differing figures in Turkish sources, e.g. Mustafa Naima,Tarichi Naima (i.e. "Naima's History"), Constantinople 1734, vol. I, p. 43 f. (Annals of the Turkish Empire: from 1591 to 1659. Transl. Charles Fraser. London: Oriental Translation Fund, 1832), and Austrian sources, e.g. Franz Christoph von Khevenhüller (1588-1650), Annales Ferdinandei, Leipzig: Weidmann 1721-1726, vol. IV, p. 1093, Persondata Name Auersperg, Andreas von Alternative names Andrej Turjaški; Andrija Auersperg Short description Carniolan noble and military commander in the battle of Sisak Date of birth April 9, 1556 Place of birth Žužemberk, Slovenia Date of death September 5, 1593 Place of death Karlovac